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AMALRICUS 380 AMAT time in propagating their errors without being de- tected by the ecclesiastical authorities. At length, through the efforts of Peter, Bishop of Paris, and the Chevalier Gudrin, an adviser of the king, to both of whom secret information of the affair had been given, the inner workings of the sect were laid bare, and the principals and proselytes were arrested. In the year 1210 a council of bishops and doctors of the University of Paris assembled to take measures for the punishment of the ofTenders. The ignorant converts, including many women, were pardoned. Of the principals, four were condemned to imprison- ment for life. Ten others, priests and clerics, who had obstinately refused to retract their errors, after being publicly degraded, were delivered to the secular authority and suffered the penalty of death by fire. Five years later (1215) the writings of Aristotle, which had been distorted by the sectaries in support of their heresy, were forbidden to be read either in public or in pri-ate. Regarding the scope of this prohibition see P.vRis, University of. Amaury himself, though dead some years, did not escape the penalty of his heresy. Besides being in- cluded in the condemnation of his disciples, in the council of 1210 special sentence of excommunication was pronounced against liim, and his bones were ex- humed from their resting-place and cast into uncon- secrated ground. His doctrine was again con- demned by Pope Innocent III in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) "as insanity rather than heresy", and Pope Honorius III condemned (1225) the work of Scotus Erigena, "De Divisione Naturte", from which Amaury was supposed to have derived the beginnings of his heresy. C'HoLLEr in Diet de theol. calh., s. v.; Denifle, Charlu- larium, I, 70, 107; B.eumker, Ein Traktat gegen die A. in Jakrb. f. Phil. u. spek. Thfol. (1893); Ueberweg, Gesch. d. Phil. (9th eil.). II, 222; De Wulf, Hist, de la philosophic medievale (Louvain, 1905J. John J. a' Becket. Amalricus Augerii, a church-historian of tlio fourteenth century, and member of the Augustinian Order. He was a doctor of the University of Mont- pelliei , prior of a monastery of his Order, and chaplain to Urban V, 1362. He was a man of great learning, especially in church history. His chief work is the "Actus Rom. Pontificum", extending in alphabetical order from St. Peter to the year 1321, and edited, chronologically, in Eccard, "Script, medii sevi", II, 1641-1824. Keller in Kirchenlex., s. v. Francis W. Grey. Amandus, Saint, one of the great apostles of Flanders; b. near Nantes, in France, about the end of the sixth century. He was, apparently, of noble extraction. When a youth of twenty, he fled from his home and became a monk near Tours, resisting all the efforts of his family to withdraw him from his mode of life. Following what he regarded as divine inspiration, he betook himself to Bourgcs, where under the direction of St. Austregisile, the bishop of the city, he remained in solitude for fifteen years, living in a celt and subsisting on bread and water. After a pilgrimage to Rome, he was con- secrated in France as a missionary bishop at the age of thirty-three. At the request of Clotaire II, he began first to evangelize the inhabitants of Ghent, wlio were then degraded idolaters, and afterwards extended liis work throughout all Flanders, .suffering persecution, and undergoing great hardship but acliieving nothing, until the miracle of restoring to life a criminal who had been hanged, changed the feelings of the people to re-erence and affection and brought many converts to the faith. Monasteries at (ihont and Mt. Blandin were erected. They were the first monuments to the Faitli in Belgium. Returning (o France, in 630, he incurred the enmity of King l)agol>ert, whom he had endeavoured to recall from a sinful life, and was expelled from the kingdom. Dagobert afterwards entreated him to return, asked pardon for the wrong done, and re- quested him to be tutor of the heir to the throne. The danger of liing at court prompted the Saint to refuse the honour. His next apostolate was among the Slavs of the Danube, but it met with no success, and we find him then in Rome, reporting to the pope what results had been achieved. While returning to France he is said to have calmed a storm at sea. He was made Bishop of Maastricht about the year 649, but unable to repress the dis- orders of the place, he appealed to the Pope, Martin I, for instructions. The reply traced his plan of action with regard to fractious clerics, and also contained information about the Monothelite heresy, which was then desolating the East. Amandus was also commissioned to convoke councils in Neustria and Austrasia in order to ha-e the decrees which had been passed at Rome read to the bishops of Gaul, who in turn commissioned him to bear the acts of their councils to the Sovereign Pontiff. He a-ailed hiinself of this occasion to obtain his release from the bishopric of Maastricht, and to resume his work as a missionary. It was at this time that he entered into relations with the family of Pepin of Landen, and helped St. Gertrude and St. Itta to establish their famous monastery of Nivelles. Thirty years before he had gone into the Basque country to preach, but had met with little success. He was now requested by the inhabitants to return, and although seventy years old, he undertook the work of evangelizing them and appears to have banished idolatry from the land. Returning again to his coimtry, he founded several monasteries, on one occasion at the risk of his life. Belgium especially boasts many of his foundations. Dagobert made great concessions to him for his various establish- ments. He died in his monastery of Elnon, at the age of ninety. His feast is kept 6 February. .Icta S.S., Fel)., II; Butler, Lives of the Sainls, 'c Feb.; Maclear in Diet, of Christ. Biog. T. J. Campbell. Amasia (Amasea), a titular see and metropolis of Pontus in A.sia Minor on the river Iris, now Amasiah. Its episcopal list dates from the third century (Gams, I, 442). It was the birthplace of the geographer Strabo, who has left us a striking description of his native city, in a deep and extensie gorge over which rose abruptly a lofty rock, " steep on all sides and descending abruptly to the river". It was famous in antiquity for its rock-cisterns, reached by galleries, of which some traces remain; also for the tombs of the ancient kings of Pontus hewn in the solid rock. Lequien, Oriens Christianus (1740'), I, .'J21-5.32; Van Lennep, Travels in Asia Minor (London, 1870). I, 86-106. Amastris (now Amasserah or Samastro), a titular see of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor, on a peninsula jutting into the Black Sea. Its episcopal list dates from the third century (Gams, I, 454). It is men- tioned by Homer (Iliad, II, 853), was a flourishing town in the time of Trajan (98-117), and was of some importance until the seventh century of our era. Leqcien. Oriens Christ. (1740), I, 561-5G0; Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Geogr., I, 118. Amat, Thaddeu.s, second Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, California, U. S., b. 31 December, ISIO, at Barcelona, Spain; d. at Los Angeles. California, 12 May, 1878. He joined the Lazarists in early manhood and was ordained a priest at the house of that Congregation in Paris, in 1S3S. Ho came to the United States in 183S and worked in the missions in Louisiana. He was master of novices in the l.ouses of the Lazarists in Missouri and Philadelphia in 1841-47, and on the promotion of Bishop Ale- many of Monterey to be .Archbishop of San Francisco, Father .mat was named to succeed him. He was consecrated Bishop of the iliocese in Rome, 12 March,