AMBO 382 AMBOISE they were usually placed one on each side of the choir, which wa-s separated from the nave and aisles by a low wall. An excellent example of this arrange- ment can still be seen in the church of St. Clement at Rome. Very often the gospel ambo was provided with a permanent candlestick; the one attached to the ambo in St. Clement's is a marble spiral column, richly decorated with mosaic, and terminated by a capital twelve feet from the floor. Ambones are believed to have taken their origin from the raised platform from which the Jewish rabbis read the Scriptures to the people, and they were first introduced into churches during the fourth century, were in univeral use by the ninth, reach- ing their full development and artistic beauty in the twelfth, and then gradually fell out of use, until in the fourteenth century, wlien they were largely super- seded by pulpits. In the Ambrosian Rite (Milan) the Gospel is still read from the ambo. They were usually built of white marble, enriched with carvings, inlays of coloured marbles, Cosmati and glass mosaics. The most celebrated ambo was the one erected by the Emperor Justinian in the church of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople, which is fully described by the contemporary poet, Paulus Silentiarius in his work TTfpl KTia-/xdTwv. The body of the ambo was made of various precious metals, inlaid with ivory, overlaid with plates of repouss6 silver, and further enriched with gildings and bronze. The disappearance of this magnificent example of Christian art is involved in great obscurity. It was probably intact down to the time of the taking of Con.stantinople by the Cni.saders in 1203, when it wa.s largely shorn of its beauty and wealth. In St. .Mark's, at Venice, there is a very peculiar ambo, of two storitw; from the lower one was read the Epistle, and from the upper one the Gospel. This form was copied at a later date in what are known as " df)iible-decker " pulpits. Very interesting exam- I)les may be seen in many of the 'Italian basilicas; in ?avenna there are a nuniber of the sixth century; one of the seventh ut Torcello; but the most beautiful are in the Roman churches of St. Clement, St. Mary in Cosmedin, St. Lawrence, and the Ara Coeli. De Fledry, La Mease (Paris, 1883), III; Revue de Vart Chretien (Lille, 1887, 1894); Reusens, L'archeologie chri- tienne (Louvain, 1885); Architectural Record (New York); Thiers, Dissertation sur U-s jubes (Paris, 1G88); Kracs, Geschichte der chriatlichen Kunat (Freiburg, iS94), 1, 233; Lb- CLERCQ in Z>ici. d'arc/ieo/offl«cArf(ienfte (Paris, 1904), I. 1330-47. Cakyl Colem.vn. Ambo, In the Ru.ssi.vn .vnd Greek Church. — Its u.se has now practically disappeared in the Roman Rite and the only reminder of it in modern churches is the pulpit or reading desk. Sometimes two ambos were used, from one of which the Epistle was read and from the other the Gospel. Examples of these may be .seen in the church of St. Clement at Rome and the cathedral of St. Mark at Venice. In the Russian Orthodox Church the word ambo is now applied to two or three semi-circular steps leading from the middle of the soleas (or platform immediately in front of the iconostasis) to the floor of the church. These semi-circular steps are directly in front of the royal doors of the iconostasis. In cathedral churches in Russia there is also another ambo situated in the middle of the nave, upon which the bishop stands during certain parts of the pontifical service. In the Greek (Hellenic) Orthodox Church the ambo is more often in the ancient style, but has been removed from the midtUe to the sides of the church. The Greek Liturgy, however, plainly shows that the ambo was originally raised and that it was in the middle of the church. One of the concluding prayers of the Greek Ma.ss is the "prayer behind the ambo" (eiiX^ 6iri.(T6a.ij.^apos), which is directed by the rubric to be said in front of the royal doors outside of the iconostasis. In the Greek Catholic (United) Church, both in Slavic countries and the United States, the ambo is a table standing in front of the royal doors of the iconostasis, upon which there are a crucifix and two candles. It. is used as the ambo and replaces the analogion. Services such as baptisms, con- firmations, and marriages are performed at the ambo. The Greek CathoUc churches of Italy and Sicily do not use the ambo, having apparently followed the Roman Rite in its disuse. Andrew J. Shipm. . Amboise, George d', French cardinal, archbishop, and statesman, b. at Chaumont-sur-Loire in 14C0; d. at Lyons, 25 May, 1510. He was one of the promi- nent figures of the French Renaissance. Nominated Bishop of Montauban at the age of fourteen, he did not assume office till he was twenty-four. In 1493, he became Archbishop of Rouen. He belonged to the party of the Duke of Orleans, who, when he became Louis XII (1498) at once made d'Amboise his prime minister. He was created a cardinal by Alexander VI, the same year. As a prime minister he pursued an ambitious foreign policy, and urged Louis XII to the conquest of Milan; at home, he inaugurated a firm and wise policy of retrenchment and reform, reducing the imposts one-tenth, setting the finances in order, and introducing needed im- provements into legislation and the judicial system. As a churchman, he was much less admirable. Am- bitious to become pope he strove by every means in his power to compass this end at the ilcath of Alexander VI. Louis XII lent him the prestige of France, and C;esar Uorgia intrigued at Rome with the Spanish cardinals in his interest. In the ballot- ing he stood third with thirteen votes, Giuliano doUa Rovere receiving fifteen, and Cardinal Caraffa four- teen. When C;rsar Borgia retired from Rome, d'Amboise suffered from the reaction, and was con- tent to promote the election of Pius III. On the death of Pius he renewetl his elTorts and, having again failed, went .so far as to encourage schism between France and Julius II. His plans, however, came to naught through the failure of the French
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