ANASTASIOPOLIS 454 ANASTASIUS oration of this martyr, and towards the end of the fifth century her name was also inserted in the Ro- man canon of the Mass. Nevertlieless, she is not a Roman saint, for slie suffered martyrdom at Sir- inivmi, and was not venerated at Rome until almost the end of the fifth century. It is true that a later legend, not earlier than the si.xth centurj-, makes .■ astasia a Roman, though even in this legend she did not suffer martyrdom at Rome. The same legend connects her name with that of St. Chrj-sog- oaus, likewise not a Roman martjT, but put to death in Aquileia, though he had a church in Rome dedicated to his honour. According to this "Passio ", Anastasia was the daughter of Pra>textatus, a Roman rir illustris, and had Chrysogonus for a teacher. Early in the persecution of Diocletian the Emperor summoned Chrysogonus to Aquileia where he suffered martyrdom. Anastasia, haying gone from Aquileia to Sirmium to visit the faithful of that place, was beheaded on the island of Palmaria, 25 December, and her body interred in the house of Apollonia, which had been con-erted into a basilica. The whole account is purely legendary, and rests on no historical foundations. All that is certain is that a martyr named Anastasia gave her life for the faith in Sirmium, and that her memory was kept sacred in that church. The so-called "Martyrolo- gium HieromTuianum " (ed. De Rossi and Duchesne, Acta SS., 2 November) records her name on 25 De- cember, not for Sirmium alone, but also for Con- stantinople, a circumstance based on a sejiarate storj'. According to Theodorus Lector (Hist. Eccles., II, 65), during the patriarchate of Gennadius (458- 471) the Ijody of the martyr was transferred to Con- stantinople and interred in a church which had hitherto been known as "Anastasis" (Or. 'Kvi.aTa.ai.%, Resurrection); thenceforth the church took the name of . astasia. Similarly the cultus of St. Anastasia was introduced into Rome from Sirmium by means of an already existing church. As this church was already quite famous, it brought the feast of the saint into especial prominence. There existed in Rome from the fourtli century, at the foot of the Palatine and above the Circus Maximus, a church which had been adorned by Pope Damasus (366- 384) with a large mosaic. It was known as "titulus Anastasiie", and is mentioned as such in the Acts of the Roman Council of 499. There is some un- certainty as to the origin of this name; either the church owes its foundation to and was named after a Roman matron Anastasia, as in the case of several other titular churches of Rome (Duchesne), or it was originally an "Anastasis" church (dedicated to the Resurrection of Christ), such as existed already at Ravenna and Constantinople; from the word ". astasis" came eventually the name "titulus Anastasia;" (Grisar). Whatever way this happened, the church was an especially prominent one from the fourth to the sixth century, being the only titu- lar church in the centre of ancient Rome (see Rome, E.HLY CuniSTi.^N), and surrounded by the monu- ments of the city's pagan past. Within its jurisdic- tion was the Palatine where the imperial court was located. Since the veneration of the Sirmian martyr, Anastasia, received a new impetus in Constantinoijle during the second half of the fifth century, we may easily infer that the intimate contemporary relations between Old and New Rome brouglit about an in- creiuse of devotion to St. Anastasia at the foot of the Palatine. At all events the insertion of her name into the Roman Canon of the .M:i.ss towards the end of the fifth centurj-, and the celebration of the second .Miiss on Chrisimas day in her honour during the sixth century, show that .she then occupied a unique position among the .saints publicly vener- ated at Rome. Thenceforth the church on the Pala- tine is known as "titulus sancta; Anastasia-", and the martyr of Sirmium became the titular saint ot the old fourth-century basilica. Evidently because of its position as titular church of the district in- cluding the imperial dwellings on the Palatine this church long maintained an eminent rank among the churches of Rome; only two churches j)receded it in honour: St. John Lateran, the mother-church of Rome, and St. Mary Major. This ancient sanctuary stands to-day quite isolated amid the ruins of Rome. The commemoration of St. Anastasia in the second JIass on Christmas day is the last remnant of the former prominence enjoyed by this saint and her church in the life of Christian Rome. DuFouRCQ, Etude sur les Gesta Martyrum Tomains, 121 sqq., 137 sqq. (Paris, 1900); Acta SS., Oct.. XII, 513 sqq.; Ddchesne, Sainte Anaatasie; Notes sur la topographic de Rome au moyen- dge, N. Ill, in Melanges d'archeol. et d'hist., V*II, 3S9 sqq. U8S7); Grisar, 5. Anastasia di Roma, in Analecta Romano, I, 595 sqq.; Butler, Lives, 25 Dec. J. P. KiRSCH. Anastasiopolis, name of four ancient episcopal .sees located respectively in Galatia (suffragan of Ancyra), in Phrygia (suffragan of Laodicea), in Caria, and in Thrace (Gams, 441, 446, 448). Mas Latrie, Tresor de chronol. (Paris, ISg^i), 1985; Le- qniE.N, Oriens Christ. (1740). I, 4S.5-486, 824-825, 913-914. Anastasis. See Resurrection. Anastasius, Saint, Bishop of Antioch, a. d. 559, distinguished for his learning and austerity of life, excited the enmity of the Emperor Justinian by opposing certain imperial doctrines about the Body 01 Christ. He was to be deposed from his see and exiled, when Justinian died; but Justin II car- ried out his uncle's purpose five years later, and another bishop, named Gregory, was put in his place; on the death of that prelate, in 593, Anastasius was restored to his see. This was chiefly due to Pope Gregory the Great, who interceded vh the Emperor iMaurice and his .son Theodosius, asking that Anastasius be sent to Rome, if not reinstated at Antioch. From some letters sent to him by (!regorj% it is thought that he was not sufficiently vigoious in denouncing the claims of the Patriarch of Con- stantinople to be universal bi.shop. He died in 598, and another bishop of the same name is said to have succeeded him in 599, to whom the translation of Gregory's "Regula Pastoralis" is attributed, and who is recorded as having been put to death in an insurrection of the Jews. Nicephorus (Hist. Eccl., XVIII, xliv) declares that these two are one and the same person. The same difficulty occurs with re- gard to certain Sermons de orthodoxd fide, some as- scribing them to the latter Anastasius; others claim- ing that there was but one bishop of that name. Acta SS.. 21 April; Butler, Lives of the Saints, 21 April; MicHACD, Biog. Univ.; Venables in Diet. Christ. Biog. T. J. C.MPBELL. Anastasius I, S.unt, pope, a pontiff who is re- membered cliiefly for his condemnation of Origcn- ism. A Roman by birth, he became pope in 399. and died within a little less than four years. .Among his friends were .ugustine, and Jerome, and Paulinus. Jerome speaks of h.iin as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty. It was during the time of the barbarian invasions. Acta SS., Ill, September; Butler, Lives of the Saints, 27 September. T. J. C.IPBELL. Anastasius II, Pope, a native of Rome, elected 24 Nov., 496; d. 16 Nov.. 498. His congratulatory letter to Clovis, on the occasion of the hitter's con- version, is now deemeil a forgery of the seventeenth century (J. Kavet. Uibl. de l'6c. des Chartres, 1SS5. XLVI. 258-59). He insisted on the removal from the diptychs of the name of .Vcacius. Patriarch of Constantinople, but recognized the validity of liis sacramental acts, an attituile that displeased the Ro- mans. He also condcnmed Traducianism.
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