ANDREW 471 threats aiul persecution, to establish the laith Andrew, Saint. — The name Andrew (Gr., dvSpela, Palestine. Wlien (lie .Vpostles went forth to preacli to nianliiiod. or valour), like other CIreek names, aj)- the na( ions, .Vndrew seems to have taken an important pears to have been eonunon among the Jews from part, but unfortunately we have no certainty as the second or third century n. c. St. Andrew, the to the extent or place of his labours. Eusebius (H. .•l)Ostle, son of Jonah or John (Matt., xvi, 17; John, i, K., Ill, 1, in i'. (1., XX, col. 216), relying, ap- •12). wius born in Hetlisaida of Galilee (John, i, 41). He parently, upon Origen, iiiisigns Scytliia a.s his was brother of .^imon Teter (.Matt., X, 2; John, i, 40). mission" field: 'A^Spias di [dXiixei'] ttiv '^KvOlav; Hoth wenni.sliermen (Matt., iv, 18; Mark, i, IG), and while St. (iregory of Nazianzus (Or. 33, in P. G., at the beginning of Our Lord's public life occupied the XX.Wl, col. 228) mentions Kpirus; St. Jerome (Ep. .siime house at Capluirnaum (Mark, i, 21, 29). Krom ad Marcell., P. L., XXII, col. 589) Achaia; and the fourth (iospel we learn that Andrew was a disciple Theodoret (on Ps. cxvi, P. G., LXXX, col. 1805) of the Baptist, whose testimony first led him and Hellas. Probably these various accounts are cor- John the Evangobst to follow Jesus (John, i, 35- rect, for Nicephorus (H. E., II, 39, P. G., CXLV, 10). .Xndrewat once recognized Jesus as t he .Messias, and has- tened to introduce (o Him his brother, IVter (John, i, 41). Thenceforth the two brothers were dis- ciples of Christ. On a subsequent occa- sion, prior to the final call totheapi.^- tolate, they w n called to a closii- companionship, and then they left all things to follow Jesus (Luke, v, 11; Matt., iv, 19, 20; Mark, i, 17, 18). Fi- nally Andrew was cliosen to l)C one of the Twelve; and in the various lists of Apostles given in the New Testament (Matt., X, 2-4; Mark, iii, 16-19; Luke, vi, 14-16; Acts, i, 13) he is al- w ays numbered among thefirst four. (See Ai'OSTLEs.) The only other ex- plicit reference to Iiim in the Synop- tists occurs in Mark, xiii, 3, where we are told he joined with Peter, James. an<l John in putting the question that led to Our Lord's Nero, on 30 November, .k. d. 00; and both the f-alin great eschatological discourse. In addition to this and Greek Churches keep 30 November as his feast, scanty information, we learn from the fourth CiO,s- St. Andrew's relics were translated from PatnetoCon- pel that on the occlusion of the miraculous feed- stantinople, and de|H)silcd in llie church of the Apos- uig of the five thousand, it was Andrew who said: ties there, about .. D. .357. When Constantinople wjus "There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and taken by the French, in the beginning of the thir- two fishes: but what are these among so many?" teenth century. Cardinal Peter of Capua brought (John, vi, 8, 9); and when, a few days before bur the relics to Italy and placed them in tlie cathedral Lord's death, certain Greeks asked Philip that they of .Vnialfi, where most of them still remain (I'ghelli, might see Jesus, Philip referred the matter to . - Italia .Sacra, VTI). St. . drew is honoured as their drew as to one of greater authority, and then both told chief patron by Russia and Scotland. Christ (John, xii, 20-22). Like the majority of the „ . Twelve, Andrew is not named in the Acts except in x-n^^'S" li'^'xn^i"') r^T"*.; ^Z"^ '5 JT', ?-}p "J"
- u 1- A r xi i *i I *i J f Ai II * IJI.S— IH, LuiTT Miraculorum A. Andrea Apostoti in /*. L.,
the list of the Apostles, where the order of the hrst i.x.XI, inl. I2r,i-(14; Ann Andrea rt Maithai (or Maithia} in four is Peter, John, James, Andrew; nor have the Tis<iikni)orj-s Acta A itotiolorum Apocrypha: Actn I'eiri rt F.ni<ltlp<! or AnocnKm«p nnv iTinntinn nf liini From ■^nilrea-, in Tl'trllKNDnnvs .-Iporn/l/PW' AlHlcrypha' LfS iKtilt cnisiies or Apocaij-pe anj mention oi mm. l rom iiM„n.li,ie,. XIII. 08j-r.9O (7th «!.. Har-lc-Duc. is.n Ut- what we know of the .postles generally, we can, of sius. DU anokryphm Apnnteluetchiehlen u. ApoatclUoendm, course, supplement somewhat tliese few details. As 1. 543 aq. (Bruaswick, 1887). one of the 'I'welve, Andrew was admitted to the clos- J. Mac Rory. St. Anuh UoLci (l(i4(j), I'lTTi Gallery col. 860), relying upon early writers, states that Andrew preached in Cappa- docia, Galatia, and Hithyiiia.then in the !:iii.l of the anthro- jHipliagi and the Scy- thian deserts, after- wards in Hyzantium itself, wliere he ap- pointed St. Stachys as its first bishop, and finally in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly. and Acha- ia. It is generally agreed that he was crucified by order of tile Roman Gov- ernor, .Egeas or .(Egeatcs, at Patra; in Achaia, and that he W!is l)Ound, not nailed, to the cross, in order to prolong his sufferings. The cross on which he .s u tT e r e d is com- monly held to have Ix-cn the decussate (TOSS, now known a s ,S t. Andrew's, tliough the evidence for this view seems to be no older than the fourteenth cen- tury. His mar- tyrdom took place during the reign of