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Andrew, Saint, a martyr of the Faith in Lampn sacus, a city of Mysia, in the persecution of Deeius. He and two companions were brought before the proconsul and interrogated about their behef. One of the tliree, Nichomachus, presumptuous and over confident, unfortunately apostatized under torture. Andrew and his companion Paul, after having under- gone the sufferings of the rack, were thrown into prison. Meantime a girl of sixteen, named Dionysia, who had reproached Nichomachus for his fall, was seized and tortured, and then subjected to the ap- proaches of three libertines, but was protected by an angel. In tlie morning, Andrew and Paul were taken out and stoned to death. As they lay in the arena, Dionysia, escaping from her captors and hurry- ing to the place of execution, asked to be slain. She was carried away by force, and suffered death by the sword. The feast of these martyrs is kept on 15 May.

Acta SS., Ill, May; Butler, Lives of (he Saints, 15 May. T. J. Campbell.

Andrew Avellino, Saint, b. 1521 at Castronuovo, a small town in Sicily; d. 10 November, 1608. His baptismal name was Lancelotto, which out of love for the cross he changed into Andrew when he en- tered the Order of Theatines. From his early youth he was a great lover of chastity. After receiving his elementary training in the school of Castronuovo, he was sent to Venice to pursue a course in the humanities and in philosophy. Being a handsome youth, his chastity was often exposed to danger from female admirers, and to escape their importunities he took ecclesiastical tonsure. Hereupon he went to Naples to study canon and civil law, obtained the degree of Doctor of Laws and was ordained priest at the age of twenty-six. For some time he held the office of lawyer at the ecclesiastical court of Naples. One day, while pleading the cause of a friend, a lie escaped his lips in the heat of argument. When, soon afterwards, his eyes fell upon the passage in the Bible, "The mouth that belieth killeth the soul" (Wis. i, 11), he felt deep remorse, renounced his profession as ecclesiastical lawyer and for some time devoted himself entirely to holy meditation and other spiritual exercises. The Archbishop of Naples now commissioned him to reform a convent at Na- ples, which by the laxity of its discipline had become a source of great scandal. By his own example and his untiring zeal he restored the religious discipline of the con\'ent liut not without many and great dif- ficulties. Certain wicked men who were accustomed to have clandestine meetings with the nuns became exasperated at the saint's interference, and one night he was assaulted and severely wounded. He was brought to the monastery of the Theatines to re- cuperate. Here, however, he resolved to devote him- self entirely to God and he entered the Order of Theatines, which had but recently been founded by St. Cajetan. On the vigil of the Assumption he was invested, being then thirty-five years of age. After completing his novitiate, he obtained permission to visit the tombs of the Apostles and the Martyrs at Rome, and, upon his return was made master of novices. After holding this office ten years he was elected superior. His holy zeal for strict religious discipline, and for the purity of the clergy, as well as his deep humility and sincere piety induced the Gen- eral of his Order to entrust him with the foundation of two new Theatine houses, one at Milan, the other at Piacenza. By his efforts many more Theatine houses rose up in various dioceses of Italy. As su- perior of some of these new foundations he was so successful in converting sinners and heretics by his prudence in the direction of souls and by his elo- quent preaching, that numerous disciples thronged around him, eager to be under his spiritual guidance. One of the most noteworthy of nis disciples was

Lorenzo Scupoli, the author of that still popular book "The Spiritual Combat". St. Charles Borromeo was an intimate friend of Avellino and sought his advice in the most important affairs of the Church. Though indefatigable in preaching, hearing confessions, and visiting the sick, AveUino still had time to write some ascetical works. His letters were published in 1731, at Naples, in tw'o volumes, and his other ascetical works, three years later in five volumes. On 10 November, 1608, when beginning the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, he was stricken with apoplexy, and after devoutly receiving the Holy Viaticum, died the death of a saint at the age of eighty-eight. In 1624, only sixteen years after his death, he was be- atified by Urban VIII, and in 1712 was canonized by Clement XL He is venerated as patron by Naples and Sicily and invoked especially against a sudden death. His earthly remains lie buried in the Church of St. Paul at Naples.

Butler, Lives of the Saints, 10 Nov.; Baring-Gould, Lives of the Saints (London, 1877); Schmid in Kirchenlex., Stabler, Heiligen-Lexiktn (Augsburg, 1858), 1, 193.

Michael Ott.

Andrew Bobola, Blessed, Martvr, b. of an old and illustrious Polish family, in the Palatinate of Sandomir, 1590; d. at Jan6w, 16 May, 1657. Having entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Wilna (1611), he was ordained in 1622, and appointed preacher in the Church of St. Casimir, Wilna. After making his solemn vows, 2 June, 1630, he was made superior at Bobruisk, where he wrought wonders by Ills preaching and distinguished himself by his devotion during an epidemic of the plague. In 1636 he began his work in the Lithuanian missions. During this period Poland was being ravaged by Cossacks, Russians, and Tatars, and the Catholic Faith was made the object of the concerted attacks of Protestants and schismatics. The Jesuits, in particular, had much to endure. Bobola's success in converting schismatics drew upon him the rage of those high in authority, and the adherents of the Greek Pope decided to centralize their forces in Polesia. A Catholic nobleman of this province offered the Jesuits a house at Pinsk, and here Father Bobola was stationed. The schismatics vainly endeavoured in every manner to hinder him in the exercise of his apostolic duties, extending their persecutions to attacks upon liis person. On 16 May, 1657, he was seized by two Cossacks and severely beaten. Then tying liim to their saddles, they dragged him to Janow where he was subjected to incredible tortures. After having been burned, half strangled, and partially flayed alive, he was released from suffering by a sabre stroke. His body was interred in the collegiate church of the Society at Pinsk, where it became the object of great veneration. It was later transferred to Polosk, where it is still held in honour, even by the scliismatics. Father Bobola was declared Blessed by Pius IX in 1853, and his feast is kept by the Society of Jesus, 23 May.

Bonk in Kirchenlex.: Acta SS., 10 May; de Buck, Essai historique sur le Bienh. Andrd Bobola (Brussels, 1S53).

F. M. Rddoe.

Andrew Corsini, Saint, of the illustrious Corsini family, b. in Florence, in 1302; d. 1373. Wild and dissolute in youth, he was startled by the words of his mother about what had happened to her before his birth, and, becoming a Carmelite monk in his native city, began a life of great mortification. He studied at Paris and Avignon, and, on his return, became the Apostle of Florence. He was regarded as a prophet and a thaumaturgus. Called to the See of Fiesoli, he fled, but was discovered by a child, and compelled to accept the honour. He redoubled his austerities as a bishop, was lavish in his care of the poor, and was sought for everywhere as a peace- maker, notably at Bologna, whither he was sent as