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ANNE 538 ANNE accorded by the Uoiikhi Cluirch.and from the feudal tribute due from .such territories as stood in real feudal relationship to Rome (e. g. Naples). Among the payments made to the Roman Curia in the fifteenth century under the general term of annates, the oldest are the xervilia communia and the servitia 77iinula. At a very early period bishops who re- ceived episcopal consecration in Rome were wont to present gifts to the various ecclesiastical authorities concernetl. Out of this custom there grew up a prescriptive right to such gifts; in the first half of the thirteenth century a regular scale of payment was prescribed for all the dioceses and abbeys liable to this tax upon appointment or confirmation of their prelates. During the thirteenth century there like- wise arose in many cathedrals and collegiate churches the custom of appropriating for the bishops or other ecclesiastical ollicials a year's income from vacant ben- efices. In exceptional cases some bishops received from the Pope authority to levy this annate on all benefices in their dioceses falling vacant within a spec- ified period. In 1306 Clement V reserved for the papal treasury a year's revenues from all benefices through- out England and Scotland at that time vacant or falling vacant within a period of three years. John XXII, in 1316, made a similar reservation of annates for three years on all ecclesiastical livings, with a few exceptions. From this time on the popes of the fourteenth century were very frequently forced to adopt these measures to obtain relief in financial straits. Moreover, after the thirteenth century the annate was required from benefices that had been for any reason whatever collated directly by the Pope. This tribute was fixed by John XXII (1316- 34) at half the annual revenue. At the Council of Constance (1414-18) and later, many complaints were made concerning these assessments; and in concordats made by the popes with separate coun- tries the annates were regulated anew. In particular it was decided that annates on reserved benefices could be paid to the Curia only when the annual income exceeded twenty-four gold gulden. With the gradual transformation of the system of benefices, the annates, strictly so called, disappeared. To-day they are levied only on the occasion of new appointments to dioceses not subject to Propaganda, and after the manner fixed by the latest concordats or by the papal documents (Bvills of Circumscription) that legally establish a diocese. FERH.tRls, Prompta Bibliotheca, s. v. Amwtce (ed. 1SS4, 247 sqq.): Thomassincs, Velus ef nova eccles. disciplina. Part. II, I, xliv; Philipps, Kirchenrecht, V, 540 sqq.; Berthier, HUtoire del'cglvse gallicane, XIX, 1 .sqq. (4th ed., Paris, 1827); KoNiG, Die pdpstliche Kammer unter Klemens V u. Johann XXII (Vienna, 1894); Kirsch, Die papstlichen Annaten in Deutuchland wiihrenil ties 14 jahrh. (Paderborn, 1903), I; lu,, Die Finnnzrirtrnltnno des Kardinalkollegiums in Kirchen- gcachichtl. Si'^.l .,. M,,; .for, 1895), II, 4; Haller, PapsHum urul Kirrh., , l.ilin, 1903), I; GoTTLOB, Die Servi- tumlaxe it,, i I ' i ul tEart, 1903); Gohl.KR, Milleilungen Ttnd Unt'Tsu,!,.,,,. f. ,, ,,,,■,- d,i8 pdpsttiche Register — und Kan- zleiwesen ivt 14. J,ihrh., in Quellen und Forschungen aus itat. Archircn (Rome, 1904); Samaran et Mollat, La fiscalitS prntiftaile en France ait A'/l'c siicle (Paris, 1905). J. P. I^IRSCH. Anne, Queen. See England. Anne, Saint (Hcb., Hannah, grace), Ann, Anne,, the traditional name of the mother of the Ulessed Virgin .Mary. All our information concern- ing the names anil lives of Sts. Joachim and Anne, the parents of Mary, is derived from apocryphal literature, the Gosnel of the Nativity of Mary, P.seudo-.Matthew and the ProtnrrimqeUum of James. Though the earliest form of the latter, on which directly or mdirectly the other two .seem to be based, goes back to about a. d. 1,'>(), we can hardly accept as beyond doubt its various statements on its .solo authority. In the Orient the Protoevangelium had great authority and portions of it were read on the feasts of Mary by the Greeks, Syrians, Copts, and .rabians. In the Occident, however, it was rejected by the Fathers of the Church until its contents were incorporated by Jacobus de Voragine in his " Goklen Legend" in the thirteenth century. From that time on the story of St. . ne spread over the West and was amply developed, until St. Anne became one of the most popular saints also of the Latin Church. The Protoevangelium gives the following account: In Nazareth there lived a rich and pious couple, Joachim and Hannah. They were childless. Wlien on a feast-tlay Joachim presented himself to offer sacrifice in the temple, he was repulsed by a certain Ruben, under the pretext that men without off- spring were unworthy to be admitted. Whereupon Joachim, bowed down with grief, did not return home, but went into the mountains to make his plaint to God in solitude. Also Hannah, having learned the reason of the prolonged absence of her husband, cried to the Lord to take away from her the curse of sterility, promising to dedicate her child to the service of God. Their prayers were heard; an angel came to Hannah and said: " Hannah, the Lord has looked upon thy tears; thou shalt conceive and give birth, and the fruit of thy womb shall be blessed by all the world". The angel made the same promise to Joachim, who returned to his wife. Hannah gave birth to a daughter whom she called Miriam (ilary). Since this story is apparently a rei)roduction of the biblical account of the concep- tion of Samuel, whose mother was also called Hannah, even the name of the mother of Mary seems to be doubtful. The renowned Father John Eck of Ingolstadt, in a sermon on St. Anne (published at Paris in 1579). pretends to know even the names of the parents of St. Anne. He calls them Stollanus and Emerentia. He says that St. Anne was born after Stollanus and Emerentia had been childless for twenty years; that St. Joachim died soon after the presentation of Mary in the temple; that St. Anne then marrietl Cleophas, by whom she became the mother of Mary Cleophai (the wife of Alphaeus and mother of the Apostles James the Lesser, Simon and Judas, and of Joseph the Just); after the death of Cleophas she is said to have married Salomas, to whom she bore Maria Salomae (the wife of Zebeda;us and mother of the Apostles John and James the Greater). The same spurious legend is found in the writings of Gerson (0pp. Ill, 59) and of many others. There arose in the sixteenth century an animated contro- versy over the marriages of St. Anne, in which Baro- nius and Bellarmin defended her monogamy. The Greek Men;ca (25 July) call the parents of St. Anne Matlian and Maria, and relate that Salome and Elizabeth, the mother of St. John the Baptist, were daughters of two sisters of St. Anne. According to Ephiphanius it was maintained even in the fourth century by some enthusiasts that St. Anne con- ceived without the action of man. This error was revived in the West in the fifteenth centuiy. (Anna concepit per osculum Joachimi.) In 1077 the Holy See condemned the error of Imperiali. who taught that St. . ne in the conception and birth of Mary remained virgin (Benedict XIV, De Festis, II, 9). In the Orient the cult of St. Anne can be traced to the fourth century. Justinian I (d. 565) had a, church dedicated to her. The canon of the Greek Office of St. Anne was composed by St. Theophanes (d. 817), but older parts of the Office are ascribeil to Anatolius of Byzantium (d. 458). Her feast is celebrated in the East on the 25th of July, which may be the day of the dedication of her first cluirch at Constantinople or the anniversarj' of the arrival of her supposeil relics in Constantinople (710) It is found m the oldest liturgical document of the Greek Church, the Calendar of Constantinople (first