Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/616

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Saint 18 largely drawn from Eacimer. See also Rule, Lije and Timts of St. Anselm (London, 1883): Kagev, Histoire de St. Amelme (Paris. 1890); Idem, Vie de St. Anselme (Paris, 1877); Idem, St. .insehic Profeaaeur (Paris, 1890). German lives by MoHLER, in Oeaammehe Schriften (Ratisbon, 1839), Rymer, tr. (London, 1842), and Hasse (Leipzig, 1843), Turner, abr. tr. (London, 1850); French lives by Remusat (Paris, 1853); Cihrma (Caen, 1853), and Croset-Mouchet (Paris, 1859); Hook, Lii'ea of the Archbishops of Canterbury (London. 1S60-75); Chdrch in The British Critic; Idem, Life of St. Anselm (London. 1873); Stephens in Diet. Nat. Biog.; Schwane in Kirchentcr.; Bainvel, in Diet, de thiol. cath (1901) V, 1327-60; Allies and Raymond-Barker in Catholic World, XXXVII (1883).

W. H. Kent.

Anselm, S.unt, Abbot, Duke of Forum Julii, the modern Friuli, in the northeastern part of Italy. Wishing to serve C!od in a monastery, he left the world, and in 750 built a monastery at Fanano, a place given to him by Aistulph, King of the Lom- bards, who liad married Anselm's sister Gisaltruda. Two years later he built the monastery of Nonantula, a short distance northeast of Modena. He then went to Rome where Stephen III invested liim with the habit of St. Benedict and appointed him Abbot of Nonantula. Being very charitable, Anselm founded many hospices where the poor and the feeble were sheltered and cared for by monks. Desiderius, who had succeeded Aistulph as King of the Lombards (756-774) banished Anselm from Nonantula. The seven years of his exile the latter spent at Monte Cassino, but returned to Nonantula after the capture of Desiderius by Charlemagne. Having been abbot for fifty years, Anselm died at Nonantula in 305, and the town of that name still honours him as patron.

Lechner, Martyrologiiim des Benediktiner-Ordens (Augs- burg, 1855): Stadler, Heiligen-Lexikon (Augsburg, 1858), I, 235: Acta SS., 1 March, 263, 891.

Michael Ott.

Anselm of Laon (Anselmit.s Laudinensis), d. 15 .July, 1117, one of the famous theologians of the Middle Ages, known from his learning as Doctor Scholasticus. He was educated at the abbey of Bee, under St. Anselm of Canterbury, who made liim ac- quainted with the new scholastic theology. From 1076 he taught for a while with much distinction at Paris, and co-operated with William of Cham- peaux in establisliing the university there. He re- turned to Laon about the end of the eleventh century and set up a theological school which became so famous that Abelard, then thirty years of age, who was teaching philosophy at Paris, removed to Laon in order to study tlieology under him. Anselm's chief work is liis "Glossa interlinearis", a com- mentary on the whole Vulgate (Antwerp, 1634), one of the two chief exegetical works of the Middle Ages, the other being the "Glossa ordinaria" of Walafrid Strabo. His known writings are found in Migne, P. L., CLXII, 1187-1660.

Hefele in Kirchenhx., s. v.; Lefevrb (Evreux, 1904); Hist, Ittt. de France. X, 170.

Anselm of Liege, a Belgian chronicler of the eleventli century, b. 1008; d. about 1056. He was educated at the famous episcopal school of Lioge, and became canon and dean of the cathedral, where he enjoved the friendsliip of the bisliop, Wazo. His chronicle, regarded as one of the liest of the period, both for literary merit and for liistorical value, is known as the "Gesta Episcoporum Tungrensium, Trajectensium, et Leodiensium ', and is a continua- tion of the earher woik of Heriger, abbot of Lobbes (d. 1007) which dealt with the first twenty-seven bishops, from St. Maternus (90) to Remaclus (680). Anselm's work, written at the request of his god- motlier, the countess Ida, Abbess of St. Cecilia at Cologne, added the lives of twenty-five more bishops, down to Wazo, of whom he gave a very full and par- ticular account. Tlic hil est edition of the "(iesta" U to be found in the ".Monumenta Germania; His-

torica: Scriptores", VII, 161-2.34; also ibid., XIV, 107-120 (1883). Anselm's style is clear, and his zeal for church-reform is equalled by his critical intelligence. ScHERER in Kirchenlex., I, s. v.; Wattenbach, 5th ed. II, 145. Francis W. Grev.

Anselm of Lucca, The Elder. See Alexander II, Pope.

Anselm of Lucca, the Younger, Saint, b. at Mantua c. 1036; d. in the same city, 18 March, 1086. He was nephew of .\nselm of Lucca, the Elder, who ascended the Papal tlirone as Alexander II in 1061. In the year 1071 Alexander II designated An.selm as Bishop of Lucca and sent him to Germany to take investiture from Henry IV. .Anselm went to Ger- many, but was loath to receive the insignia of spiritual power from a temporal ruler and returned without investiture. In 1073 Gregory VII, successor of Alexander II, also appointed Anselm Bisliop of Lucca, but advised liim not to accept his ring and crosier from Henry IV. For some reason, ."Vriselm accepted investiture from Henry, but soon felt such remorse that he resigned his bishopric aiid entered the Order of St. Benedict at Padihrone, a monastery of the Cluniac Reform, situated near Mantua. Greg- ory VII ordered him to return to his episcopal see at Lucca. Anselm returned reluctantly, but con- tinued to lead the life of a monk until his death. Inspired, like Gregory VII, witli a holy zeal to reform the clergy, he wished to impose stricter discipUne upon the canons of liis cathedral. Most of the canons refused to submit to .\nselm's regulations, and in 1081 he was expelled from Lucca with the help of the Emperor and his antipope, Guibert. Anselm now retired to the castle of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany, whose spiritual ativiser he was. Some time later he was made Papal Legate of Lombardy with instructions to rule o\-er all the dioceses which, during the conflict between pope and emperor, had been left without bishops. Anselm was well versed in the Scriptures and wrote some exegetical and ascetical works. In his work " Contra Guibertum et sequaces ejus" he shows the unlawfulness of lay- investiture and defends Gregory against the Antipope Guibert. He also made a collection of canons which afterwards weie incorporated into the well- known " Decretum " of Gratian. Mantua, the city of Ills birth and death, honours liim as its patron.

Ranbeck, .4 Benedictine Calendar (London, 1896); MoN- talembert, Les moines d'occiilent (Paris, 1882), VI, 473 sqq.; GuERiN, Les petils BoUandistes (Paris), III, 498; Lechner, Martyrologium des Benediktiner-Ordens (Augsburg, 1855).

Michael Ott.

Anselme, Antoine, a celebrated French preacher, b. at risle-Jourdain in the Comt6 d'Armagnac, 13 January, 1652; d. at Saint-Sever, 8 August, 1737. His father was a distinguished surgeon. Anselme studied at Toulouse and became a priest. As a child he was called the "Little Prophet", because he would repeat with appropriate gestures sermons which he had heard only once. The sobriquet clung to him up to his death. After his ordination he preached in Toulouse, and the Marquis de Montespan was so delighted with his eloquence that he made him instructor to his son, the Alarquis d'Antin, and brought him to Paris. Pcre .\nselme's eloquent ser- mons there soon procured him sudi repute as a .sacred orator that parishes wishing to secure him had to do so two or three years in advance. In 1681 the French Academy chose him to deliver before it the panegyric on St. Louis. Two years later (1683) he preaelied at Court. S^vigii^ in one of her letters (8 .\pril, 1689) speaks in warm praise of his intelligence, eloquence, charm, and devotion. He became a member of the .'Vcadciny of Inscriptions in 1710. He died at the age of eighty-five, in the Abbey of Saint-Sever which