at the end a Semi-Arian declaration. At last, in 378, a large number of Oriental bishops, assembled in Antioch, broke with Arianism altogether. They gave their assent to the Nieene faith as it had been expressed by Pope Damasus (q. v.) and a Roman synod in 369; viz., that the Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost were one substance. The synod held in 388 forbade any revenge for the death of a bishop killed by the heathens; another sj-nod held in 390 condemned the sect of the Messalians. The synods of the fifth and si.xth centuries were usually concerned with the theological controversies of the time. Thus the council of 424 decreed the expulsion of Pelagius from the city. Phases of tlie Nestorian and Mono- physite controversies were dealt with in the synods of 432,447, 451, 471,478, 481, 482, 508, 512,565. A synod of the year 445 rendered a decision in the matter of Athanasius, Bishop of Perrha, accused of misconduct and brought before the patriarch of Antioch. Finalljs a synod held about the year 542 was caused by the Origenistic controversies in Pales- tine. During the period of Latin domination two synods were held at Antioch. In 1139 Radulf, the second Latin Patriarch of Antioch, was deposed for having aspired to complete independence from Rome, and for cruel treatment inflicted on some ecclesiastics. In 1204 the Cardinal-Ijegate Peter decided certain claims on the principality of Antioch in fa\'our of the Count of Tripolis, against Armenia, which was placed under interdict. Ecclesiastical life in Antioch be- came all but extinct from the time that the city was permanently taken by the Mohammedans.
MoMMsEN, Romiache Geschichle, (Berlin, 18S6) V; Renan, Lea apolres (Paris, 1894); St. Paid (Paris, ISQa); Abbe FoDARD, Sai7it Peter (Eng. tr., New York, 1892); Saint Paul (Eng. tr„ New York, 1899); Dollinger, Christenthum nnd Kirche (Ratiabon, 1868); J. M. Neale, The Patriarchate of Antioch (posthumous continuation of his Holy Eastern Church) (London, 1873); Treppner, Das Patriarchal von An- tiochien (Freiburg, 1891); Stipter, The Church of Antioch in BMiotheca Sacra (1900), LVII, (i45-659; S. VAn,HE, L'ancien patriarchat d'Antioche, in Echoa d'Orient, 1899, 216-227; C. Diehi., Juslinien et la civilisation byzantine au _ V'/« allele (Paris, 1901); Harnack, Mission und Ausbreitung des Chrislenthuma (Leipzig, 1902); Duchesne, Hiatoire an- cienne de Vcglise (Pans, 1906); Idem^ Christian Worship, (Eng. tr. London, 1904); Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church (London, 1710) I; Thomassin, Discipline de I'eglise (Bar-le-Duc, 1864) I; Binterim, Denkwurdigkeiten (Mainz, 1838) III; Philipps, Kirchenrecht (Ratisbon, 1857) II; Hefele, Conciliengesch. (2d ed.. Freiburg, 1886) 1. — The profane antiquities of Antioch are described in the classic work of Ottfried Muller, Antiquitates Antiochence (Gottin- gen, 1839). Cf. R. Forster, Antiochi^ am Orontes in Jahrb. d. kaiser, deulsch. Inst. (1897) XII, 103, sq.. and Damiani, Antioch During the Crusades, in Architologia (1806) XV, 234- 263; also Rey, Recherchea hiat. et geogr. sur la domination dea Latins en Orient (Paris, 1877). The medieval ecclesiastical antiquities of the patriarchate are dealt with in two im- portant works: Assemani, Bihliotheca Orientalia etc. (Rome, 1719-28), and Lequien, Oriena Christianus (Paris, 1740); cf. Streber, Antiochien in Kirchenlex., I, 941-962, and Leci.ercq in Diet, d'arch. et de liturg. chret., I, coll. 2359- 2427. Extensive bibliographies are given in the latter work (coll. 2425-26) and in Chevalier, Rep. dea sources hist. (Topo- Bibl.), I, 168-170.
Antioch, of Syria. — It is difficult to realize that in the modern Antakieh (28,000 inhab.), we have the once famous "Queen of the East", which, with its population of more than half a million, its beau- tiful site, its trade and culture, and its important military position, was a not unworthy rival of Alex- andria, the second city of the Roman empire (cf. Josephus, Bel. Jud., Ill, 2, 4). Founded in 300 B. c. by Seleucus I (Nicator), King of Syria, Antioch stood on the Orontes (Nahrel Asi),at the point of junction of the Lebanon and of the Taurus ranges. Its harbour, fifteen miles distant, was Seleucia (cf. Acts, xiii, 4). The name by which it was distinguished ['Ai^wxta 11 Tpis (or ^irl) Ad(pyia, now, liet el ma, five miles west from Antioch] came from the ill-famed sacred grove, which, endowed with the right of asylum, and .so once, by "a rare chance", the refuge of inno- cence (cf. II Mach., iv, 33 sq.), had become the haunt
of every foulness, w-hence the expression Daphnici mores. However, the vivid description of Antioch's immorality, largely the result of the greater mingling of races and civilizations, may be exaggerated; as said in another connexion [cf. Lepin, Jesus Messie, etc. (2d ed., Paris, 1905), 54, note], les brave■^! gens n'oni pasd'histoire, a.nd of that class there must have been a goodly number (Josephus, Bel. Jud., VII, 33; Acts, xi, 21). The Jews had been among the original settlers, and, as such, had been granted by the founder here, as in other cities built by him, equal rights with the Macedonians and the Greeks (.Jos. Ant., XII, iii, 1; Contra Ap., II, iv). The influence of the Antiochene Jews, li^■ing, as in Alexandria, under a go\'ernor of their ov.i\, and forming a large percent- age of the population, was very great (Josephus, Ant. Rom., XII, iii, 1; Bel. Jud., VH, iii, 3, VII, v, 2; Harnack, Mission u. Ausbreitung d. Christenthums, p. 5, note 2). Unknown disciples, dispersed by the persecution in which Stephen was put to death, brought Christianity to Antioch (Acts, xi, 19). Cf. Acts, vi , 5, w here the author characteristically mentions the
Flace of origin of Nicholas, one of the seven djacons. n Antioch the new Faith was preached to, and ac- cepted by the Greeks with such success that Chris- tianity received here its name, perhaps originally in- tended as a nickname by the witty Antiochenes (Acts, xi, 26). The new community, once acknowledged by the mother-church of Jerusalem (Acts, xi, 22 sq.) , soon manifested its vitality and its intelligence of the faith by its spontaneous act of generosity toward the brethren of Jerusalem (Acts, xi, 27-30). The place of apprenticeship of the Apostle of the Gentiles (Acts, .xi, 26), Antioch, became the headquarters of the great missionaries Paul and Barnabas, first to- gether, later Paul alone. Starting thence on their Apostolic journeys they brought back thither the re- port of their work (Acts, xiii, 2 sq.; xiv, 25-27; XV, 35 sq.; xviii, 22, 23). Acts, xv (cf. Gal., ii, 1-10) clearly evidences the importance of the Antiochene Church. There arose the great dispute concerning the circumcision, and her resolute action occasioned the recognition of the "catholicity" of Christianity. II. Antioch of Pisidia. — Like its Syrian name- sake, it was founded by .Seleucus Nicator situated on the Sebaste road. Tliis road left the high- road from Ephesus to the East at Apamea, went to Iconium and then southeast through the Cilician Gates to SjTia (cf. Acts, xviii, 23). The city lay south of the Sultan Dagh, on the confines of Pisidia, whence its name of " Antioch-towards-Pisidia" (Strabo, XII, 8). Definitively a Roman possession since Amytas's death (25 B. c), Augustus had made it (6 B. c.) a colony, with a view to checking the brigands of the Taurus mountains (II Cor., xi, 26). Beside it« Ro- man inhabitants and older Greek and Phrygian pop- ulation, Antioch had a prosperous Jewish colony whose origin probably went back to Antiochus the Great (223-178 b. c.) (cf. Josephus, Ant., XII, iii, 3 sq.), and whose influence seems to have been con- siderable (cf. Acts, -xiii, 45, 50; xiv, 20 sq.; Harnack, "Die Mission", etc., p. 2, note 2 and ref.). Acts, xiii, 14-52 describes at length the sojourn of St. Paul at Antioch. The epi.sode, clearly important to the writer, has been justly compared to Luke, iv, 16- 30; it is a kind of programme-scene where Paul's Gospel is outlined. A longer stay of the mission- aries is implied in Acts, xiii, 49. On his return from Derbe, St. Pavil revisited Antioch (Acts, xiv, 20). Two other visits seem implied in Acts, xvi, 4, 6; xviii, 23.
Blas8, H. Wendt, Holtzmann, Knowlino, Knaben- baueh, Rackham, Knopf, Com. on ^cto;STRABO (Paris, 1880), 477-487-494, 638-639. The lives of St. Paul, or works on the Apostles by Convkeaiie and Howson, Farrar; Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller (New York, 1903), 40-69; FoUARn, Le Camus, Clemen (Giessen, 1904), II, 126; Semeria, Venti- rinque anni di atoria del criatiani»mo nascente (Itome, 1905), 292 sqq.; Badeker-Benzinoer, PaUiatina u. Syrien (6th ed.,