LeipziK. 1004X 340-340; Smith. Hitt. Gtoo.oi the Holy Land (New York. 1900), 37. 4(1, (i47; DuniKSNK, nitloire ancimne dr t'egtuie; SciliKEK, The Jewish People in the Time of Jesiu Chriat; Harnack. Die Misaion u. Ausbreituno des Christen- thumg in den eraten drei Jahrhunderten (l^ipsig, 1902).
Antiochene Liturgy. — I'lio family of liturgio.s oriKiiially used in the Patriarchate of Alitiocli bcgiii.s Willi tlia't of tlio .Vpostolir Coiistitutioas; tlieii follow that of St. James in (Ireek. the Syrian Liturpy of St. James, and the other Syrian Aiuiplumis: The line may be further continued to the Byzantine Kite (the older I.ittirgj' of St. Basil and the later and shorter one of St. John Chrj'sostom), and throiiph it to the Armenian use. But the.se no longer concern the Church of Aiitioch. I. The Liluniii of Ihe Ajiostolic Constitnlioiix. — The oldest known form that can be de.scribed as a complete liturgj' is that of the Apos- tolic ConstitutioiLs. It is also the first member of the line of Antiochene uses. The Apostolic Constitu- tions (q. V.) consist of eight books purporting to have been written by St. Clement of Rome (died c. 104). The first six books are an interpolated edi- tion of the Didiiscalia ("Teaching of the Lord's Apostles and Disciples", written in the first half of the third century and since edited in a Syriac version by de Lagarde, lS.>t); the seventh book is an equally modified version of the Didnchc (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, probably written in the first cen- tury, and found by Philotheos Bryennios in 1SS3) with a collection of prayers. The eighth took con- tains a complete liturgy aufl the eighty-five "Apos- tolic Canons". There is also part of a liturgy modified from the Didascalia in the second book. It has I»cn suggested that the compiler of the Apostolic Con- stitutions may be the same person as the author of the six spurious letters of St. Ignatius (Pseudo- Ignatius). In any case he was a Syrian Christian, probably an ApoUinarist, living in or near Antioch either at the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth centurj'. And the liturg\' that he describes in his eighth book is that used in Iiis time by the Church of Antioch, with certain modifications of his own. That the WTiter was an .\ntiochene Syrian and that he describes the liturgical use of his own country is shown by various details, such as the precedence given to Antioch (VII. xlvi, VIII, x, etc.); his men- tion of Christmas (VIII, xxxiii), which was kept at Antioch since about 37.5, nowhere else in the East till about 130 (Duchesne, Origines du ciiltc clir(?tien, 248); the fact that Holy Week and Ixnt together make up seven weeks (V, xiii) sis at Antioch, whereas in Palestine ami Egypt, sis throughout the West, Holy Week was the sixth week of I>cnt; that the chief source of his "Apostolic Canons is the Synod of Antioch in enaeniis (341); and especially by the fact that his liturgy is obviously built up on the saine lines as all the Syrian ones. There are, however, modifications of his own in the prayers. Creed, atui Gloria, where the style and the idioms are ob\iously those of the interpolator of the Didascalia (see the examples in Bright man, " Liturgies", I. xxxiii-xxxiv), and are often verj' like those of Pseudo-Ignatius also (ib., xxxv). The rubrics are added by the compiler, apparently from his own observations.
The liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, then, represents the use of Antioch in the fourth century. Its order is this: First comes the " Mass of the Catechumens". After the readings (of the Law, the Prophets, the Epistles, Acts, and Gospels) the bishop greets the people with II Cor., xiii, L3 (The grace of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of fiod and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with vou all). They answer: "And with thy spirit"; and he "speaks to the [X^ople words of comfort." There then follows a litany for the catechumens, to each invocation of which the people answer "Kyrie eleison"; the bishop says a collect and
the deacon dismisses the catechumens. Similar litanies and collects follow for the Energumens, the Illuininandi (■^unfi^ti/oi, [leople alx)ut to Iw baj)- tized) and the public j)eiiitents, and each time they are <lismis.sed after the collect for them. The "Mass of the Faithful" begins with a longer litany for vari- ous causes, for peace, the Church, bishops (James, Clement, Evodius, and Annianus are named), priests, deacons, servers, readers, singers, virgins, widows, orphans, married i«"oi)le, the newly bai)ti/ed, prison- ers, enemies, persecutors, etc., and finally "for every Christian .soul". .A.fter the litany follows its collect, then another greeting from the bishop and the kiss of peace. Before the Offertory the deacons stand at the men's doors and the subdeacons at those of the women "that no one may go out, nor the door be opened", and the deacon again warns all catechumens, infidels, and heretics to retire, the mothers to look after their children, no one to stay in hypocri.sy, and all to stand in fear anil trembling. The deacons bring the offerings to the bishop at the altar. The priests stand around, two deacons wave fans (^iirioio) over the bread and wine and the Anaphora (canon) begins. The bishop again greets the people with the words of II Cor., xiii, 13, and they answer as before: "And with thy spirit". He says: "Lift up your mind." R. "We have it to the Lord." ■>^. "Let us thank the Lord." R. "Uiglit and just." He takes up their word: "It is truly right and above all just to sing to Thee, Who art truly God, existing before all creatures, from Whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named. ..." and so the Eucharistic prayer begins. He speaks of the "only begotten Son, the Word and C!od, Saving Wisdom, first born of all creatures. Angel of thy great counsel", refers at some length to the garden of Eden, Abel, Henoch, Abraham, .NIelchisedech, Jol>, and other saints of the Old Law. When he has .said the words: "the num- berless army of Angels . . . the Cherubim and six- winged Seraphim . . . together with thousands of thousand Archangels and myriad myriads of Angels unceasingly and without silence cry out", "all the people together say: 'Holy, holy, holy the Lord of Hosts, the heaven and earth are full of His glory, blessed forever, Amen.'" The bishop then again takes up the word and continues: "Thou art truly holy and all-holy, highest and most exalted for ever. And thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God Jesus Christ, is lioly . . ."; and so he comes to the words of Institution: "in the night in which He was betrayed, taking bread in His holy and blameless hands and looking up to Thee, His God and Father, and breaking He gave to His disciples saying: This is the Mystery of the New Testament; take of it, eat. This is My body, broken for many for the remission of sins. So also Iiaving mixed the cup of wine and water, and having blessed it, Hegave to them saying: Drink you all of this. This is My blood sheii for many for the remission of sins. Do this in memorv of Me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you announce My death until I come."
Then follow the Anamimne.sds ("Remembering therefore His suffering and death and resurrection and return to heaven and His future second com- ing . . ."), Ihe EpiUksis or invocation ("send- ing Thy Holy Spirit, the witness of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus to this s;»crifice, that He mav change this bread to the bodv of thy Christ and this cup to the blood of thy Christ . . ."), and a sort of litany (the great Intercession) for the Church, clergy, the Emperor, and for all sorts and conditions of men, which ends with a doxology, "and all the people say; Amen." In this litany is a curious jietition (after that for the Emperor and the army) which joins the saints to living people for whom the bishop prays: "We al.so offer to thee for (inrip) all thy holy and eternally well-pleasing patriarclis, jjrophets. just