1888). Its principal features are insight into the mind of the chikl. synipatliy with its dangers and needs, and solicitude for its moral training. V'aluable suggestions are al.so given on physical culture, on the education of all chu-i-ses of the people and on the preparation of teachers for their work. The other writings of .\ntoniano, many of which have not been pubUshed, deal witli literary, historical, and liturgical subjects. Their author was one of the compilers of the Roman Catechi.sm and a member of the com- mission charged by Clement VIII with the revision of the Hreviarj'.
Castiomonk, ISilini Antoniano vita (Rome, ICIO); Max- zucHELLi, OU scrittori d'ltalia (Brescia. 1753); Biographical Nketches* pretixtnl to French anu German translations of his works.
E. A. Pace.
Antonians. See .Vnthonv, St., Orders of.
Antoniewicz, (Botoz), Ch.\rles, a Polisli Jesuit and missionaiy, b. in Lw6w (I^emberg), 6 No\eml3er, ISO"; d. 14 November, 1.S.52. He was the son of Joseph .\ntoniewicz, a nobleman and lawyer. His
f)ious mother, Josephine (Nikorowicz), attended to lis early training on their estate at Skwarzawa,
whither they moved in ISIS. After the death of his father (1823), Charles entered the University at
Lw6w, to study law, devoting, however, much time to philology; hence, besides Polish, lie spoke fluently German, French, Italian, and English. Here he also gathered material for the history of the .\rmenians in Poland (his ancestors were .\rmenians), and wrote Polish and (lerman poetry. Having finished his course in law with the highest distinction (1827), he made a tour through .Vvistria and Koumania. Dur- ing the Polish insurrection of 1S30-31, he served for some time under General Owernicki. In 1833 he married his cousin Sophia Nikorowicz, and .settled in Skwarzawa. His happy marital life ended with the death of his five children, followed shortly by that of his wife. This devout woman took the re- ligious vows on her death-bed, beseeching her liiLS- band to enter some order. His mother also died as a religious in the Benedictine Order. Tliis, as well as the advice of his spiritual director, Father Fretl- eric Rinn, S.J., induced him to seek admission to the novitiate of the Jesuits at Stani Wie:5 in Septem- ber, 1,S39, where he took the solenjn vows 12 .Sep- tember, 1S41. His nhilosopliical studies were made at Tarnopol, where lie was a colleague of the great theologian, Cardinal Franzelin. His theological studies he finished at Nowy Sijcz. He was or<lained priest on 10 October, 1844, by Bishop Gutkowski. While yet a student, he attracted universal atten- tion by his unusual oratorical gifts. I'pon the re- quest of Count d'Este, Governor of Galicia, the Pro- vincial (Father Pierling) appointed him missionary for the Sandee district, where crime and lawlessness (massacre of the nobility, 184fj) reigned .supreme. During seven months .\ntoniewicz gave over twenty missions, preaching over 2(K) sermons, (ireat w:us the success of his apostolic zeal and unremitting toils. His impaired health, however, compelled him to seek a mountainous climate in spring, 1847. Having recovered, he was assigned to St. Nichohis in Lwow, as preacher, and as confessor for students. Wlien on 7 May, 1S4S, the Society of Jesus was dissolved in Austria, .■Vntoniewicz went to Silesia (Graefenlierg), returning incognito, however, to Lw6w in 1S,tO. Being discovered, he left the countn,-, stopping at Cracow, just after the memorable conflagration of 18 July, 18.50, to console the grief-stricken inhabi- tants. On this occasion he delivered the famous sermon "On the ruins of Cracow" (Na zgliszczach Krakowa). kt the instance of Cardinal Diepenbrock he again gave missions in Silesia; there he also founded a house in Nissa, and was appointed its first superior. At the urgent entreaty of Archbishop
Przyluski, he extended his missionary activity to Posen (18.52). His boundless devotion and self- sacrifice during the terrible outbreak of cholera will always he remembered; for the hero, having himself contracted this disea.se, died a victim of lirothcrly love, 14 Novemlier, 18.52. In the church at (Ibra, where he rests, his friends erected to his mciiiory a monument, surmounted by his bust. A terse Latin sketch tlescribes his brief but zealous career. In youth he composed many charming poems; later he gave preference to religious themes. He had genu- ine poetical talent, vivid imagination, a facile pen, and a captivating style. Especially beautiful are his " Wianek kr/.yzowy " (( Jarland of the Cross), " Wianek majowy" (Wreath of .May), " Jan Kanty, Sw.Jacek" (St. Hyacinth), etc. He is the author of many devo- tional works, and ranks high as an ascetic. These works, though simple in language, breathe genuine piety, singular gravity, and tender emotion; e. g. " Czytania swiateczne dla ludu " (Festive Readings for the Faithful), " Sw. Izydor Oracz" (St. Isidore), " Groby swietych polskich " (The Tombs of the Polisli Saints), " Li.sty w tlucliu Bozym do przyjaci61 " (Spirit- ual Letters to Friends), and many others. He is, however, best known as an orator. But his ability cannot be judged by his printed sennons; his elo- quence was an inspired heart-to-heart appeal. He is a master when he speaks on tlio eternal mercy, the Victim of the Cross, or the Blessed N'irgin Mary. His sermons were collected and arranged by his fellow- Jesuit, John Badeni, and published in four volumes (Cracow, 1893, 2d ed.), under the title "Kazania Ks. Karola .\ntoniewicza". " Zbi6r poezyi " (a collection of poems) was likewise published in 1898-99 by Father J. Badeni. In the impossibility of enumerat- ing here all of his writings it may be said that he composed over seventy-six different works; six lie- fore he became a Jesuit, and seventy as a Jesuit, twenty-seven of which were published after his death. Ks. S. Raracz, Zi/u'oty stawnych Ormian w PoUce (Lem- berg. 1856); Speil, P. Karl Anionu-wicl. Mutionar der Getrll- srhaft Je«u, ein Lebensbild (Breslau, 1875); Badeni. /C«. Karol Anton-Uuicz (Cracow, 189t>); Pelczar, Zarys driejow kaz- nodziejutua (Cracow, 1890), II, 320-322; Kvliczkowski. Zarys dzirjuw lilrralury pol. (I.emberg. 1891), 40!. 404; Ks. Karol Antoniexuicz, S,J., krotkie wspomnienie zycia i prac w pulwiekow^ roczaice jego zgonu (Cracow, 1902), and many minor sources,
BOLESLAUS E. G6RAL.
Antonines. See .-V-VTHO.N'y, Saint, Orders of.
Antoninus, Saint, Archbishop of Florence, b. at Florence, 1 March, 1389; d. 2 May, 14,59; known also by his baptismal name Antonius (.\nthony), which is found in his autograplis, in some M.SS., in printed eilitions of his works, and in the Bull of canonization, but which has been finally rejecteil for the diminutive form given him by his affectionate fellow-citizens. His parents, Niccolo and Tliomas- sina Pierozzi, were in high standing, Niccolo being a notary of the Florentine Republic. At the age of fifteen (1404) .\ntoninus applied to Bl. John Dom- inic, the great Italian religious reformer of the period, then at the Convent of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, for admission to the Dominican Oriler. It was not until a year later that he was accepted, and he was the first to receive the habit for the Convent of Fiesole about to be constructed by Bl. John Dominic. With Fra .\ngelico and Fra Barto- lommeo, the one to become famous as a painter, the other as a miniaturist, he was sent to Cortona to make his novitiate under Bl. Lawrence of Ripa- fratta. Upon the completion of his year in the novitiate, ne returned to Fiesole, where lie remained vintil 1409, when with his brethren, all faithful adherents of Pope Gregory XII, he was constraineil by the Florentines, who had refused obedience, to take shelter in the Convent of I'oligno. .\ few years later he began bis career as a zealous promoter