mg of the Apostolic Fathers, as quoted by Swete and others, points to a very different conclusion.
Rufinus (c. 400) explicitly states that the words descended into hell were not in the Roman Creed, but existed in that of Aquileia. They are also in some Greek Creeds and in that of St. Jerome, lately recovered by Morin. It was no doubt a remembrance of I Peter, iii, 19. as interpreted by Irensus and others, which caused their insertion. The clause, "communion of saints", which appears first in Niceta and St. Jerome, should unquestionably be regarded as a mere expansion of the article "holy Church". Saints, as used here, originally meant no more than the living members of the Church (see the article by Morin in Revue d'histoire et de litt^rature eccl6siastique. May, 1904, and the monograph of J. P. Kirsch, Die Lehre von der Gemeinschaft der Heiligen, 1900). For the rest we can only note that the word "Catholic ", which appears first in Niceta, is dealt with separately; and that "forgiveness of sins" is probably to be un- derstood primarily of baptism and should be com- pared with the "one baptism for the forgiveness of sins" of the Nicene Creed.
IV. Use and Authority of the Creed. — As already indicated, w-e must turn to the ritual of Baptism for the most primitive and important use of the Apostles' Creed. It is highly probable that tlie Creed was originally nothing else than a profession of faith in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost of the baptismal formula. The fully developed ceremonial which we find in the seventh Roman Ordo, and the Gelasian Sacramentary. and which probably repre- sents the practice of the fifth century, assigns a special day of "scrutiny", for the imparting of the Creed (tradiiio symboli). and another, immediately be- fore the actual administration of the Sacrament, for the re.dditio symboli, when the neophyte gave proof of his proficiency by reciting the Creed aloud. An imposing address accompanied the iraditio and in an important article, Dom de Puniet (Revue d'His- toire Eccl&iastique, October, 1904) has recently shown that this address is almost certainly the com- position of St. Leo the Great. Further, three ques- tions [intenogationes) were put to the candidate in the very act of baptism, which questions are themselves only a summary of the oldest form of the Creed. Both the recitation of the Creed and the questions are still retained in the Ordo baptizandi of our actual Roman ritual; while the Creed in an interrogative form appears also in the Baptismal Service of the Anglican "Book of Common Prayer". Outside of the administration of baptism the Apostles' Creed is recited daily in the Church, not only at the be- ginning of Matins and Prime and the end of Com- pline, but also ferially in the course of Prime and Compline. Many medieval synods enjoin that it must be learnt by all the faithful, and there is a great deal of evidence to show that, even in such countries as England and France, it was formerly learnt in Latin. As a result of this intimate asso- ciation with the liturgy and teaching of the Church, the Apostles' Creed has always been held to have the authority of an ex cathedrd utterance. It is com- monly taught that all points of doctrine contained in it arc part of the Catholic Faith, and cannot be called in question vmder pain of heresy (St. Thomas, Summa Theologica, II-II, Q. i, art. 9). Hence Catholics have generally been content to ac- cept the Creed in the form, and in the sense, in which it has been authoritatively expounded by the living voice of the Church. For those Protes- tants who accept it only in so far as it rcprescmts the evangelical teaching of the Apostolic Ago, it became a matter of supreme importance to investigate its original form and meaning. This explains the pre- ponderating amount of research devoted to this
subject by Protestant scholars as compared with the contributions of their Catholic rivals.
The materiats for any profound study of the history of the Creeds must be sought in the great works of Caspari, Un- gedruckU Quellen zur Geschichte des TaufsymboU (Chrisliania, ISBtS); Hazn, Bibliolhek der Symbole (3d ed., 1897); Katfen- BUSCH. Daa Apoatolische Symbol (2 vols., Leipzig, 1894-1900): and SwAiNso.N. The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds (1875). Of works written by Catholics in English we may mention two papers by Da. J. R. Gasqcet, which appeared originally in the Dublin Review. Oct.. 1S88, and .^pril, 1899, and which have since been reprinted in his Studies, 1904, and secondly the already quoted articles of Dr. Alexander MacDonald in the (American) Ecclesiastical Review, 1903. In French we have the excellent little summary of V. £r.viom, Le Si/m- hole des Apotres (2d ed., 1903). and the articles by Mgr. Ba- TIFKOL and l'Abbe Vacant in the Diet, de Theologie. s. v. Apotres. Symbote des. There was also an interesting
turn was criticised by G. VoisiN in the Revue d'histoire ec- clesiastique (April, 1902). Several works have been produced by German Catholics, notably DoM S. Baumer's Das Aposl. Glaubensbekenntnis (Freiburg. 1893) and a small volume with the same title and date by Father Cl. Blume, S.J. A good but early book is that of Kr.\.wutzky (Breslau, 1872). while a later and more elaborate study, still unfinished, was begun bv DoRHoLT, Das Taufsymbolum (Paderborn. 1898). In Italian we may refer to G. Semeria's Dogma, 315-37; Gerarchia e Culto (1902). The important studies of DcM G. Morin have been referred to above. Of non-Catholic works, many of great merit, the list is extensive. We may refer particularly, pn the conservative side, to Burn, Introduction to the Creeds (London, 1897); Swete, AposUes' Creed (3d cd„ 1899); and the articles by Dr. Sandat in the Journal of Theological Studies (Oct., 1899. and Oct., 1901). Among those of more radical tendency it will suffice to note Harnack's pamphlet, translated by Mrs. Humphrey Ward, in the Nineteenth Cen- tury, July, 1893, and the bold hypothesis elaborated by Professor McGiffert in his volume. The Aposties' Creed, 1902.
Apostles of Erin, The Twel^ e. — By this designa- tion are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth cen- tury who went to study at the School of Clonard, in Meath. About the year 520 St. Finian founded his famous School at Cluain-Eraird (Eraird's Mea- dow), now Clonard, and thither flocked saints and learned men from all parts of Ireland. In his Irish life it is said that the average number of scholars under instruction at Clonard was 3,000, and a stanza of the hymn for Lauds in the office of St. Finian runs as follows: —
Trium virorum millium,
Sorte fit doctor humilis;
Verbi his fudit fluvium
Ut fons emanans rivulis. The Twelve Apostles of Erin, who came to study at the feet of St. Finian, at Clonard, on the banks of the Boyne and Kinnegad Rivers, are said to have been St. Ciaran of Saighir (Seir-Kieran) and St. (3iaran of Clonmacnois; St. Brendan of Birr and St. Brendan of Clonfert; St. Columba of Tir-da-glas( (Terryglass) and St. Columba of lona; St. Mobhi of Glasnevin; St. Ruadhan of Lorrha; St. Senan of Iniscathay (Scattery Island); St. Ninnidh the Saintly of Loch Erne; St. Lasserian mac Nadfraech, and St. Canice of Aghaboe. Though there were many other holy men educated at Clonard who could claim to be veritable apostles, the above twelve are regarded by olcl Irish writers as "The Twelve Apostles of Erin '\ They are not unworthy of the title, for all were indeed apostles, whose studies were founded on the Sacred Scriptures as expounded by St. Finian. In the hymn from St. Finian's Office we read: —
Regressus in Clonardiam
Ad cathedram lectura;,
Ad studium Scripture. The great founder of Clonard died 12 Dec. 549, according to the "Annals of Ulster", but the Four Masters give the year as 548, whilst Colgan makes the date 503. His patronal feast is observed on 12 December.
W. H. Grattan Flood.