Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/707

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Apostleship of Prayer, The, a pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus. It was fouiided at Vals, France, in 1844 by Francis X. Gautrelot. It owes its popuhirily largely to tlie Uevcrend Henrj- Kaiiii6re, S.J., who, in 1861, adapted its organization for parishes and various Catliolic institutions, and made it known by his book "The A]X).stleship of Prayer", which has been translated into many languages. In 1.S79 the association received its first statutes, apiiroved l)y Pius IX, and in 1S9G these were revised and approved by Leo XIII. These statutes set forth the nature, the constitution, and the organization of the .-Vpostle- ship, as follows: Its object is to promote the practice of prayer for tlio mutual intentions of the members, in union with the intercession of Christ in heaven. There are three practices which constitute three degrees of membership. The first consists of a daily olTering of one's prayers, good works, and sufferings, the second, of daily recitation of a decade of beads for the special intentions of the Holy Father reconunended to the members every month, and the third, of the reception of Holy Communion with the motive of reparation, monthly or weekly, on days assigned. The memlx>rs are also urged to observe the practice of the Holy Hour, spent in meditation on the Passion. The moderator general of the association is the General of the Society of Jesus, who usually deputes his power to an assistant. At present the Reverend A. Drive, S.J.. editor of the "Messenger of the Sacred Heart", is the deputy. He controls the organization by the aid of the editors of the " Messenger of the Sacred Heart", in different parts of the world. At present they number thirty. In each country diocesan directors are appointed who attend to the aggregation of new centres of the League and promote its interests in their respective territories. A centre may he a parish, a pious society, a religious community, a college, academy, school, or any religioius or cliaritable institution. The priest, usually the pastor or chaplain, in charge of a centre is known as the Local Director. In order to organize a centre, he appoints promoters, usually one for every ten or fifteen members, who with him hold special meetings, canvass for new members, and circulate the mystery leaflets containing the monthly practices for the members. To erect a centre it is necessary to obtain a diploma of aggre- gation which the dej)uty moderator issues through the editors of the ".Messengers of the Sacred Heart" in their respective countries. To be a member it is sufficient to have one's name inscribed in the register of some local centre. There are now over 62,.500 local centres in various parts of the world, about 6,1)8.5 of which are in the I'nited States, 1,S'X) in Canada, 1,000 in England, 2,000 in Ireland, 200 in Scotland, and 400 in .■Vastralia. The Association numbers over 2.5,000,000 members, about 4,000,(X)0 of whom are in the United States. In schools and academies it is usually conducted in a fonn suitable for the pupils, known as the pope's militia. The members are entitled to many mdulgences.

Berinoer, Let Indulgence; II. 197 (Paris. 190.i); Handbook of the ApoHtleship of Prayer (New York): Acta Sancltr Sedis circa piam faderationem Apo8tota4ut Orationis (Toulouse, 1SS8).

John J. Wynne. Apostolic. See ApasTouaTv; Church, Masks


Apostolic Oamera. — The former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administra- tion of justice. The Camera A}x>stoUca consists to- day of the cardinal-camerlengo, the vice-camerlengo, the auditor, the general tre;usurer (an office unoccu- pied since 18701 and seven cameral clerics. Since the States of the Church have ceased to exist, and the

income of the papal treasury is chiefly derived frorc Peter's-pencc and other alms contributed by the faithful, the Camera has no longer any practical im- portance as a board of finance, for the revenue known as Peter'.s-pence is managed by a special com- mission. The officials who now constitute the c:ini- cra hold in reality quiusi-honorarj' offices. The Car- dinal-Camerlengo enters upon his chief duties on the occasion of a vacancy in the Holy See, during which time he is invested with a portion of the papal au- thority. The Vice-Camcrlengo, one of the highest prelates of the Roman Curia, was until 1870 governor of Rome, and was charged with the maintenance of peace and order in the city; during a vacancy in the Papal See he is even yet first in authority after the cardinals, and entrusted with the surveillance of the conclave, to which no one is admitted without his permi-ssion. The .\uditor-General of the Camera, also one of the highest prelates, was formerly the chief judge in all c;uses concerning the financial ailministration of the Curia. Before 1870 he pre- sided over the supremo court, to which the I ope referred the most important questions for decision. The Treasurer-General formerly had supreme finan- cial control of the whole income derived from (he temporal possessions of the Church, as well as the rest of the tribute accruing to the papal treasury. The College of Clerics of the Apostolic Camera con- sists now of seven members, though formerly the number was variable. The members of the body, who even to-day are chosen from among the higli- est prelates, had formerly not only the management of the property and income of the Holy See, and were consulted collectively on all important ques- tions concerning their .idministration, but also of- ficiated as a court in all disputes alTecting the papal exchequer. When Pius I. \. after the installation of the various ministries, divided among them the ad- ministrative duties, he assigned to each cleric of the Camera the presidency of a section of the depart- ment of finance. Four of them, moreover, were members of the commission appointed to examine the accounts of the Camera. I hey are entitled to special places whenever the Pope appears in public on solemn occasions, in the papal processions, and in public consistories. At the death of the PontitT they take possession of the .Vpostolic palaces, attend to the taking of the inventories, and manage the internal or ilomestic administration during the va- cancy. In the conclave they have charge of all that pertains to the table of the cardinals. Apart from this, the clerics of the Camera are now usually pro- fessors and canons, with regular ecclesiastical appoint- ments.

Although the Apostolic Camera and the prelates forming it have lost the greater part of their original authority, tliis body was formerly one of the most important in the Curia. The character and method of their administration have undergone much mod- ification in the past, being affected naturally by general economical development, and by the vicis- situdes of the States of the Church and the central administration. Suice the middle of the twelfth century we find a papal chamberlain (cam- erarius domini papa-) as a regular member of the Curia, entrusted with the financial management of the papal court. At that early perioil the income of the papal treasury came chiefly from many kinds of census, dues, and tributes paid in from the territory subject to the Pope, and from churches and monasteries immediately dependent on him. Cencius Camerarius (later Pope Honorius III, 12I(>- 27) made in 1 192 a new inventory of all these sources of papal revenue, known as the "Liber Censuum". The previous list dated back to Gelasius I (492—196) and Gregory I (590-<i()4). and was basctl on lists of the incomes accruing from the patrimonies, or