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worldly pursuits under the name of lay persons. It prohibits ecclesiastics from continuing Dusiness af- fairs begun by lay persons unless in case of necessity, and then with the permission only of the Sacred Congregation of the Council within Italy, and with the permission of the Diocesan Ordinary outside of Italy.

H'ullarium liened. XtV (I'rato. 1844\ I. 315-38; AxDRfe- WA.iNER, Diet, de droit Canonique, 3il e<l. (t'oris, 1901). s. v. .V.i;i-iv; I.AUHE.STlus, InalU. Jurit Kcd. (FreiburK, 1903), 93; .S.\GMi'l.LKn, l^hrbuch des Kirchenrerhta (FreiburK. 1900), 199; Vo.N SCHERER, Hiindbuch d. Kirchrnrechtu (ISStil. I. 377; Doi.llAG.\RY. /-* commrrce dra clerca in Rev. dea acitncea ecd. (Nov., 1898; July, 1899).


ApostoUci, the name of four iliflerent heretical bodies. I. Heretics of the third century. — The sect of the Kncratiles, which sprang up in the second century in Syria ami Asia Minor, with principles borrowed from Tatian or Marcion, practised an excessive asceticism which exaggerated Christian morality and distorted the teaching of the Church. Hy the third century they had .split into groups of .\postolici, .\potactici, and llj'tlroparastates or -Aquarians, names taken from their customs or tenets. The .\postolici .so styletl themselves they claimed to lead the life of the .\postles and to be derived from them. Hence they proscribed marriage and property-holding as evil things, admitting into their Ixidy no marrieil men or proix;rty owners. They lapsed into Novatianism, and finally became Maniclueans. Their names and le:iders are not known. II. Heretics of the Thirteenth and Four- teenth Centuries. — The sect of the Apostolics, or false .\postlcs, was started in 1260, at Parma, Italy, by an ignorant man of low extraction named Gerard Segarelli (also \mtten Segalelli, Sagarelli, Cicarelli), who strove to reproduce the life of the Ajwstles. He adopted a white cloak and grey robe, let his beard and hair grow, and wore the sandals and cord of the Kranciscans. He sold his house, gave away the price he received, and traversed the streets preaching penance and A[X)Stolie poverty. He had followers to such an extent that in 1287 the Council of Wurzburg forbade them to continue their mode of life and prohibited the faithful from aiding them. Segarelli remained at Parma, was in prison for awhile, and then in the bishop's palace, where he was re- garded as an object of amusement. The sect mcreased, and Honorius IV (11 March, 1286) and Nicholas IV (1290) condemned it. Segarelli was again imprisoned in 1294, escaped, was retaken, abjured his errors, but relapsed, and the secular authorities burned him at Parma, 18 July, 1300. Dulcin, a bold, mediocre, and unscrupulous man, assumed control of the false Apostles, issued mani- festos, and finally collecting his partisans withdrew with them to the mountains of Vercelli and Xovara, until 13(J(), when Clement \' organized a crusade against him. He w:is captured, his body broken and delivered to the flames, and his disciples crushed. .Some of tlic sect appeared, however, in Spain, 1315; .John XXII took meiusures against them in 1318, an<l they are mentioned by the Council of Xartonne, 1371. Their chanicteristic from the start was a ileolaration of a return to the life, and especially the poverty, of the Apostles. Honorius IV and .Nicholas IV charge<l them with violating a decree of the Second OCcumenical Council of Lyons in founding a new mendicant order and with heretical te;iching. Dulcin's tenets were: the imit;itif)n of .\|)ostolic life; jioverty was to be alwohite, obedience, interior; and one engaged himself, though by no vow, to live by alms. Dulcin also taught tli;it the course of humanity is marked hv four periods: (1) that of the Olil Testament; (2") that of Je.sus Christ and the Apf)stles; (3) that beginning with Popes Sylvester and Constantino, in which the

Church declined through ambition and love of riches', (4) the era of Segarelli and Dulcin, to the end of the world. He uttered several false prophecies and

Crofcssed liberty of thought. Free morals have een imputed to this sect by the FrancLscan Saliin- bene (Chronica, 117) and Bernard Gui (Practica impiisitionis heretics; pravitatis, 339), but the papal bulls are silent on this head.

III. The .\'ew Aposlolici of the Twelfth Cenlurif, chiefly in the vicinity of Cologne, and at Pdrigueux, in France, permitted no marriage, forbade the use of flesh meat, because it and similar products were the result of sexual intercourse; they explained that sinners (i. e. all who did not belong to their sect, in which alone was to lie found the tnie Church) could neither receive nor administer the sacraments. In consc<|Uence they set aside the Catholic priest- hood and g;i\e each member of the sect the power to consecrate at his daily mealtime and so to receive the Body and Hlood of Christ. Ihey rejected infant baptism, veneration of the saints, prayers for the dead, purgatory, and disdained the use of oaths, because all this was not found in the teaching of Christ and the Apostles. Their external condvict was blameless, but notwithstanding their reputation for chastity, their commimity life with women was a clear proof of their decejjtive and dangerous charac- ter. Meanwhile the people had come to know their character and the public aversion and disgust con- stantly increased, particularly in the vicinity of Cologne, where two members after being given three ilays for consideration were burned alive. St. Ber- nard in his sermon calls on civil authority to take regular procedure against them.

IV. Apoiitolici, a branch of the Anabaptists, which practised poverty, interpreted Scripture hterally, and tleelareil the washing of feet necessarj-, from which they were called also Pedoniles.

Vernkt in Dicl. thiol, cnth., s. v.; I.imbach, Hitt. Inquiait. (.Amsterdam. 1072). 338-339. 300-3(13; Epiphanii's, Hot., I.XI, in P. G.. XLI. 1040 sqq.; Acgustihe, Hot., XL, lo P. I.., XUI, 32; Urai-x in Kirchtnlez.. I, s. v.

John J. a' Becket.

ApostoUci Ministerii, a Bull issued 23 May, 1724, by Innocent XIII, for the revival of eccle- siastical discipline in Spain. The Primate and King Philip of Spain had reported to the Pope that the disciplinaiy laws of the Council of Trent were gnidually falling into disuse. The Pope submitted the matter to the Sacred Congregation of the Coun- cil, and with its advice issued the above-mentioned Bull. It lays down rules for the .secular and for the regular clergy of Spain, of which the following are the leading points: (a) Ton.sure is in no Ciise to be conferred unless to meet the demands of religion, and in each case the cleric must be a.ssigned to some clnirch. (I>) Seminarists, lest their studies be in- terfered with, are to attend the Cathedral on festival days only, (c) All candidates for holy orders must vmdergo an examination and show adequate knowl- edge, (it) The benefice or the title for which one is ordained must be sufficient for his decent support, and benefices of uncertain revenue are to be sup- pressed. (<) Those who have the cure of souls must regularly instruct the faithful under their care, and in any cases where through past laxity of discipline they are not fit to do it them.selves, must at their own ex|> have it done by others who are capable. (/) Parishes which are so extensive that the parish- ioners cannot reg\ilarly attend Mass are to be divided, according to the discretion of the bishop, irrespective of the wdl of the parish priest; or at least, a second church must be built for their convenience within the parish. (;/) In view of evils which have arisen, the numlx-r of jwrsons who receive the habit in religio\is orders must never be greater than the reve- nues of the community are capable of supporting.