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(h) It shall belong to tlit' exoliisive competence of the bishops to provide ordinarj' and extraordinaiy confessors for nuns, (i) Bishops are to see that the ritual and rubrics are carefully observed. They must also correct such abuses as have crept in with regard to the clergy, secular or regular, celebrating Mass in private oratories, in the cells of monasteries, or on portable altars; they must not themselves celebrate Mass in any private chapel except in the chapel of the episcopal residence. Rules are further- more laid down in the Bull, according to which they are to conduct both criminal and civil causes.

Butlarium Mngnum (ed. Luxemburg"!, 1740. part VII, XIII. 6()-65; CoUeccion de los Concordalos (Madrid, 1848), 60-65; Hergenrotheh, Archiv. f. kath. Kirchenrecht (1S63- 65), X-XIII, passim.


Apostolici Regiminis, a Bull issued 19 December, 1513, by Leo X. in ilefence of the Catholic doctrine concerning the immortality of the soul. Its object was to condemn a two-fold doctrine then infecting many minds: That the soul of man is of its nature mortal, and that it is one and the same soul which animates all men. Others, prescinding from the teaching of revelation, held that doctrine to be true according to natural reason and philosophy. Leo X condemned the doctrine in itself and from every point of view. He refers to the definition of the Council of Vienne (1311) published by Clement V (1305-14) which taught that the soul is "really, of itself, and essentially, the form of the body " [Hefele- Knopfler, "Conciliengeschichte ", VI, 530-542; Den- zinger-Stahl, " Enchiridion Symb. et Definit.", 9th ed. (Freiburg, 1899) 136-137], and then declares that it is of its own nature immortal, and that each body has a soul of its own. This doctrine is clear from those words of the Gospel, " But he cannot kill the soul ", and " he who hates his soul in this world pre- serves it for eternal life ". Moreover, if the con- demned doctrine were true, the Incarnation would have been useless, and we should not need the Resur- rection; and those who are the most holy would be the most wretched of all. The Bull enjoins on all professors of philosophy in universities to expound for their pupils the true doctrine and refute the false one. To prevent such errors in future, the Bull makes it obligatory on all ecclesiastics, secular and regular, in holy orders, who devote their time to the study of philosophy and poetry for five years after the study of grammar and dialectic, to study also theology or canon law.

Bullarium Romanum (Turin ed.) V, 601, RATNALons, Ann. ecd. ad an. 1513. No. 91; Denzinger-Stahl, Enchiridion Symb. et definit. (Freiburg, 1899) 173-174; Hergenrotheh, Leonie XIII Regesla (Freiburg, 1884) 1,369, No. 5838; Bijrck- HARDT, 77tc Renaissance in Italy (London, 1890) 541-550. M. O'RiORDiVN.

Apostolicity is the mark by which the Church of to-day is recognized as identical with the Church founded by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles. It is of great importance because it is the surest indication of the true Church of Christ, it is most easily ex- amined, and it virtually contains the other three marks, namely, Unity, Sanctity, and Catholicity. Kithcr the word " Christian ", or " Apostolic ", might be used to express the identity between the Church of to-day and the primitive Church. The term '• Apos- tolic " is |)rcferred because it indicates a correlation be- tween Christ and llu; Ajmstles, showing the relation of theChurch both tdCluist, t lie founder, and to theApos- tles, upon whom He loundod it. "Apostle" is one sent, a messenger; in the present instance. Apostle is one sent by the authority of Jesus to continue His Mission vipon earth, especially a member of the origi- nal band of teachers known as the Twelve Apostles. Therefore the Church is called Apostolic, because it was fotinded by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles. Apostolicity of doctrine and mission is necessary.

Apostolicity of doctrine rcnuires that the deposit ot faith committed to the Apostles shall remain un- changed. Since the Church is infallible in its teach- ing (.see Inf.\llibility), it follows that if the Church of Christ still exists it must be teaching His doctrine. Hence Apostolicity of mission is a guarantee of Apostolicity of doctrine. St. Irena?us (Adv. Ha>res, IV, xxvi, n. 2) says: "Wherefore we must obey the priests of the Church who have succession from the Apostles, as we have shown, who, together with succession in the episcopate, have received the cer- tain mark of truth according to the will of the Father; all others, however, are to be suspected, who separated themselves from the principal succes- sion ", etc. In explaining the concept of Apostolicity, then, special attention must be given to Apostolicity of mission, or Apostolic succession.

Apostolicity of mission means that the Church is one moral body, possessing the mission entrusted by Jesus Christ to the Apostles, and transmitted through them and their lawful successors in an un- broken chain to the present representatives of Christ upon earth. This authoritati\-e transmission of power in the Church constitutes Apostolic succession. This Apostolic succession must be both material and formal; the material consisting in the actual suc- cession in the Church, through a series of persons from the Apostolic age to the present; the formal adding the element of authority in the transmission of power. It consists in the legitimate transmission of the ministerial power conferred by Christ upon His Apostles. No one can give a power which he does not possess. Hence in tracing the mission of the Church back to the Apostles, no lacuna can be allowed, no new mission can arise; but the mission conferred by Christ must pass from generation to generation through an uninterrupted lawful succes- sion. The Apostles received it from Christ and gave it in turn to those legitimately appointed by them, and these again selected others to continue the work of the ministry. Any break in this suc- cession destroys Apostolicity, because the break means the beginning of a new series which is not Apostolic. "How shall they preach unless they be sent?" (Rom., x, 15). An authoritative mission to teach is absolutely necessary, a man-given mission is not authoritative. Hence any concept of Apos- tolicity that excludes authoritative union with the Apostolic mission robs the ministry of its Divine character. Apostolicity, or Apostolic succession, then, means that the mission conferred by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles must pass from them to their legitimate successors, in an unbroken line, until the end of the world. This notion of Apos- tolicity is evolved from the words of Christ Himself, the practice of the Apostles, and the teaching of the Fathers and theologians of the Church.

The intention of Christ is apparent from the pas- sages of Holy Writ, which tell of the conferring of the mission upon the Apostles. "As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you" (John, xx,21). The mission of the Apostles, like the mission of Christ, is a Divine mission; they are the Apostles, or am- bassadors, of the Eternal Father. " All power is given to Me in heaven and on earth.- Going, therefore, teach ye all nations; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I lia\e commanded you; and behold I am with you all days, even to the con- summation of the world" (Matt., xxviii, IS). This Divine mission is alv.ays to continue the same, hence it must te transmitted with its Divine character until the end of time, i. c. there must be an unbroken lawful succession which is called .Vpostolicity. The Apostles understood their mission in this sense. St. Paul, in his Epistle to the Romans (x, S-19), insists upon the necessity of a Divinely established mission. " How shall they preadi unless the.y be