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Tendered, and it iipplios to all labourers who may work for an employer alTected by the decision. The court may extend an award to a whole competitive field. The law concerning arbitration applies to all employers potentially, but only to such labour organizations as are registered. Registration is voluntarj'. Hence compulsory arbitration in New Zealand depends absolutely on the favourable atti- tude of organized labour towards it. In 1904 there were 2G6 registered unions with a membershi]) of 27,640. In seven years, under the action of the law, fifty-four cases of dispute were settled by boards of conciliation, and 143 by the higher court. (See also CoNCiLiATio.N, Trade Unions, Trade Agree- ments, Strikes, Labour Legislation.)

Hatch, Bulletin of the Unittd States Bureau of Labor, No. 60 (latest complete presentation of laws and facts); Report of the Industrial Commission. 1898-1901, IV, VII, XII, XVII; GiLMAN, Methods of Industrial Peace (1904); Bliss, Encyclo- pedia of Social Reform; Reports of National Civic Federation, and those of Governmental Boards of Arbitration, in Europe and America, contain valuable material.

William J. Kerby.

Arbitration, International. See Intern.*.-


Arbogast (Gaelic Arascach), Saint, has been claimed as a native of Scotland, but this is owing to a misunderstanding of the name Scotia", which until late in the Middle Ages really meant Ireland. He flourished about the middle of the seventh century. Leaving Ireland, as so many other missionaries had done, he settled as a hermit in a German forest, and then proceeded to Alsace, where his real name, Arascach, was changed to Arbogast. This change of name was owing to the difficulty experienced by foreigners in pronouncing Irish Christian names; thus it is that Moengal, Maelmaedhog, Cellach, Gillaisu, Gilla in Coimded, Tuathal, and Arascach were respectively transformed into Marcellus, Mala- chy. Gall, Gelasius, Germanus, Tutilo, and Arbogast. St. Arbogast found a warm friend in King Dago- bert II of Austrasia, who had been educated at Slane, in Meath, in Ireland, and was restored to his kingdom on the demise of King Childeric II. Monstrelet authenticates the story of King Dagobert in Ireland; and the royal exile naturally fled to Slane in order to be under the a?gis of the Ard-Righ (High- King) of Ireland, at Tara. On Dagobert's accession to the throne of Austrasia, Arbogast was appointed Bishop of Strasburg, and was famed for sanctity and miracles. It is related that the Irish saint raised to life Dagobert's son, who had been killed by a fall from his horse. St. Arbogast died in 678, and, at his own special request, was buried on the side of a mountain, where only malefactors were interred. The site of his burial was subsequently deemed suitable for a church. He is commemorated 21 July.

Grattan Flood, Irish Saints; BoscHitJa in Acta SS.

in Romische Quartalschrift (1898), XII, 299-;WS; Analecta Boliand.. XVIII, 195; BiJbl. hagioar. Lat. (1898), 106, 1317; OHanlon, Lives of Irish Saints. VII (21 July); Wattenbai h, Deutschtands Geachichlsquellen. 6th ed.; Granuidier, Hist, de l'{oli»e de Stratbourg (1770), I. 199.

W. H. Grattan Flood.

Arbroath, Abbey of. — This monastery was founded on the east coast of Scotland (1178) by William the Lion, for Benedictines, and was col- onized by monks from Kel-so. The foundation was in honour of St. Thomas of Canterbury, martyred eight years previously, with whom William had been on terina of personal friendship. At his death in 1214 William was buried in the eastern portion, then just finished, of the noble church, which was com- pleted in 12.'?3. It had a choir of three bays and a nave of nine, with side aisles, two transepts, a central and two western towers. The moniustery was richly endowed by William and his successors, and

by various Scottish barons, and was one of the most opulent in the kingdom. The monks constructed a harbour, and fixed a bell on the Inchcape Rock as a warning to mariners. The last Abbot of Ar- broath was David Beaton, Archbishop of St. An- drews. After the Reformation the revenues were be- stowed on the Hamiltons, the abbey being erected into a temporal lordship. Services were held up to 1,590 in the lady-chapel, "stripped of its altars and images". The existing ruins of the church are con- siderable and imposing, but of the conventual build- ings only a few fragments remain.

Hay, History of Arbroath (Arbroath. 1876); Mackeneie- Walcott, Scoti-M onasticon (London. 1874); Liber S. Tliomoe de Aberbrothok. ed. Cosmo Innes; Miller. Arbroath and its Abbey (Edinburgh, I860): Gordon, Monasticon (Glasgow, 1868): Sinclair, Statistical Account of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1791).

D. O. Hdnter-Blair.

Arbuthnott, Missal of, a manuscript Scottish mis- sal or mass-book, written in 1491 by James Sibbald, priest of Arbuthnott, in Scotland, for use in that church. After the Reformation, it, together with two other MSS. written by the same hand, became the property of the family of Arbuthnott, in whose possession it remained until 1897, when it was pur- chased by Mr. Archibald Coats of Paisley, who pre- sented it to the museum of that town. The MS. is written on vellum, in large Gothic characters, with numerous miniatures, illuminated capitals and bor- ders. It consists of 244 leaves, and is complete. It contains also a full-length painting of St. Ternan, the apostle of the Picts, and patron saint of the church of Arbuthnott. It is of unique historical and liturgical interest, as being the only missal of the Scottish Use now extant. It commences with a leaf of "Prayers before Mass", then follows a "Form of Excommuni- cation" in Scottish and Latin, succeeded by three leaves of rubrics and the calendar. The Mass itself is mainly that of Sarum with some variations, and, of the typical editions of the Sarum missal, that of 1498 agrees most closely w'ith it. The Sarum Rite, as emended by St. Osmund of Salisbury in the eleventh century, after having been adopted in most of the English dioceses, penetrated into Scotland early in the twelfth century, and continued in use there up to the Reformation. The differences be- tween the Arbuthnott and the Sarum missals lie chiefly in the Sandorale, Masses for certain saints being found in the one which are not in the other. The Arbuthnott missal contains also a number of Sequences, not to be found in either the Sarum, York, or Hereford missals, nor yet in the MS. troparium in the Bodleian Lilirary at Oxford.

FonnES (r<l.), l.ihrr Ecclcsix Beati Terrenani de Arbuthnott (Burntisland, 1SG4); Knlendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 1872); Innes, Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Scotland (Aberdeen. 1853): Spalding. Of the Salisbury Liturgy used in Scotland in Miscellany (Edinburgh), II.

E. E. Green

Arc, Joan of. See Joan of Auc.

Area, a box in which the Eucharist was kept by the primitive Christians in their homes. St. Cyp- rian (De lapsis, xxvi) tells of a woman "who with unworthy hands" attempted "to open her bo.x in which was the Holy (Body) of the Lord ", but was unable to do so because of fire which issued there- from the moment she touched it. (Cum ((ua'dam arcam suam in quo Domini sanctum fuit matiihus immundis teinptasset aperire, etc.) A re])rcscnta- tion of the Eiicharistic Area is believed bv Wilpert to exist in a fresco of the catacomb of Sts. I'eter and Marcellinus. The scone depicts Christ seated, read- ing from an oiien roll; on His right are three am- phoric, and on the left a square box filled with loaves, symbols of the Eucharist. It also signified a receptacle for the olTerings of Christians for the