Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/761

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Church or tho poor (Tert., Apol., xxxix; Liber Pont if., I, lo4).

KnAUH, Realencydop., 1,73; Henry in Dict.d'arch. chrH., I, 2709.

Maukice M. H.\ssett.

Arcachon, Our L.\dy of, a miraculous image vcncratcil at .Vrcaclion, France, and to all appear- ances the work ol' the thirteenth century. Carved from a block of alaba.ster about twenty inches in height, it represents Our Lady clad m Oriental drapery, holding the Divine Infant on her right arm. l{lc,s.sed Thomas lllyricus of Osimo (b. about the middle of the fifteenth century) a Franciscan who had retired to the forest solitude of Arcachon, is .saiil to have foimd this statue on the seashore, much battered by the waves. He immediately con- structed a woollen chapel, replaced, a century later, by a spacious stone sanctuary, but this, in turn, was so menaced by the drifting sands of the dunes as to necessitate the erection of a new church (1723) on a neighbouring hill overlooking the Bay of .\rcachon. The statue survived both revolutions and was granted the honour of a coronation by a brief of Pius IX, 15 July, 1870. Devotion to t)ur Lady of Arcachon has spread far and witle, and there are continual pilgrimages to her shrine. Up to 1842 the church w'as surroundetl only by a few fishermen's huts, but with the erection of villas and the dis- covery of the s;ilubrious climate people began to flock thither, and it is now the centre of a flourishing


Leroy, Hiitoire dea pHerinages de In Sainte Vierge en France (Paris, 1873-75). II, .■!97 sqq.; Delpeuch, jVo(roi»am« d'.lrca- chon; Dkjean, Arcachon el «m environa.


Arcadelt (also, Arkadelt, Harca- delt) Jacob, a distinguished musician, b. in Holland at the close of the fifteenth, or at the beginning of the sixteenth, century; d. probably at Paris, between 1570 and 1575. He grew up under the iiifiucnce of Josquin and the Belgian school. He began his career as a singer at the court of Florence. In 15.39 he went to Rome and became singing-master of the boys' choir at St. Peter's, and the following year entered the Papal choir as a singer. Here he remained till 1549. In 1555, his services having been engaged by Cardi- nal Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Cuiise, he followed liim to Paris, where he probably remained until his death. He is mentioned, at this period, as regius tnusicus (Court Musician).

Of his numerous compositions a large proportion have been published. Foremost among these are his six books of madrigals for five voices (V'enice, 1538- 56), each book containing at least forty compositions. They are his finest and most characteristic worlcs, and" together with three volumes of masses for from thrtM:- to seven voices (Paris, 1557), are perhaps his rliief claim to lasting renown. An excellent copy of the first four books of the madrigals, with other selected compositions of Arcadelt, is contained in the librarj' of the British Mu.scum. At Paris and Lyons many" of his French songs were published, including " L'excellence des chan.sons musicalos" (Lyons, 1572) and "Chansons franijaises i plusieurs parties" (Lyons, 1586).

He was one of those distinguished musicians of the Netherlands who by their efforts to advance their art in Italy, both as teachers and composers, helped to lay the foundations of the great Italian school.

Baker, Biog. Did. of Muticiam; Hoefek. Biog. univ. Grove. Diet, of Miiric and Mutiriant: Riemann, Diet, of Mttnc: Naumann, Geachicbte der Muaik.


Arcadiopolis, a titular see of .Vsia Minor. Its epi.scopal list (431-879) is given in Gams (p. 444); there is also in Gams (p. 427) the episcopal list of another see of the same name (431-879).

LtauiEN, Orient Chriti. (1740). I, 1711-12.

Arcadi us. See John Chrysostom, Saint.

Arcse, also .\hca, now Tel,-.\rka, a titular see on the coast of Plurnicia, between Tripolis and Antara- dus, suffragan of Tyre. Its episcopal list is giver, in Gams (p. 434) from .364 to 451. It was a Latin .see during the Crusades, and now gives a title to a Cireek and a .Maronite bishop. In anti(|uity it was famous for the worship of .\pnrodite and for a temple of the Roman ICmperor, -Vlexander Severus, who was born there in a temple during a visit of his parents. It stood long sieges by the .Vrab conquerors of Syria, in the seventh century, and in the eleventh (11)99) by the Cru.saders into whose hands it evenluidly fell. Later it was destroyed by the Mamelukes after they had expelled the Cliristian p<jpuIation. There was another .Vrca; in Cappailocia, suffragan of Melitene. Its episcopal list (431-680) is given in Gams (p. 441).

Lequie.n, Oriena Chritt. (1740), II, 825, 826. III. 956; Smith. Diet, of Greek and Roman Geogr., I, 189; Uurkhardt, Syria, 162.

Thom.\s J. Shahan.

Arcani Disciplina. See Discipline of the Sbciikt.

Arcanum, an Encyclical Letter on Christian mar- riage, issued 10 I'ebruary, 1880, by Leo XIII. Its scope is to show that, smce family life is the germ of society, and marriage is the basis of family life, the healtliy condition of civil no less than of religious society depends on the inviolability of the marriage contract. The argument of the Encyclical runs as follows: The mission of Christ was to restore man ill the supernatural order. That should benefit man also in the natural order; first, the indi\idual; and then, as a consequence, human society. Having laid down this principle, the Encyclical deals with Christian marriage which sanctifies the family, i. e. the unit of society. The marriage contract, Divinely instituted, had from the beginning two properties: unity and indissolubility. Through human weakness and wilfulness it was corrupted in the course of time; polygamy destroyed its unity, anil divorce its in- dissolubility. Christ restored the original idea of human marriage, and to sanctify more thoroughly this institution He raised the marriage contract to the dignity of a sacrament. Mutual rights and duties were secured to hu.sband and wife; mutual rights and duties between parents and children were also asserted: to the former, authority to govern and the duty of training; to the latter, the right to p.arcntal care anil the duty of reverence. Christ instituted His Church to continue His mission to men. The Church, true to her commission, has always iisscrteil the unity and indissolubility of marriage, the relative rights and duties of husband, wife, and children; -she has also maintained that, the natural contract in marriage having been raised to the ilignity of a sacrament, these two are henceforth one and the same thing so that there cannot be a marriage con- tract amongst Christians which is not a sacrament. Hence, while admitting the right of civil authority to regulate the civil concerns and consequences of marriage, the Church has always claimed exclusive authority over the marriage contract and its essen- tials, since it is a sacrament. The Encyclical shows by the light of histon,- that for centuries the Church exercised, and the civil power admitted, that author- ity. But human weakness and wilfulness began to throw off the bridle of Christian discipline in family life; civil rulers began to disown the authority of the Church over the marriage tie; and rationalism sought to sustain them by cstabhshing the principle that the marriage contract is not a sacrament at all, or at least that the natural contract and the sacrament are separable and distinct things. Hence arose the idea of the dissolubility of marriage and