Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/793

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ARIZONA


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ARIZONA


prelates followed the innovator, he was eondemned at Alexandria in 321 by his diocesan in a synod of nearly one hundred Kgyptian and l,il)yan bishops. Deprived and excoinnuiiiicaled, the heresiarcli (fed to Palestine. He ad(lres.s('d a thoroughly unsound statement of principles to Ku.scbius of Nicomedia, who yet became his lifelong champion and who had won the esteem of Constant ino by his worldly ac- complishments. In his hou.se the proscrilied man, always a ready writer, composed in verse and prose a defence of his position which he tenned "Thalia". A few fragments of it survive. He is also said to have pul)lislic(l songs for sailors, millers, and travel- lers, in which his creed was illustrated. Tall above the common, thin, a.scetical, and severe, he has been depicted in lively colours by Epiphanius (Heresies, 69, 3); but his moral character was never impeached except doubtfully of ambition by Theodoret. He must have been of great age when, after fruitless negotiations and a visit to Kgj-pt, he appeared in 325 at Nica'a, where the confession of faith which he presented was torn in pieces. With his writings and followers he underwent the anathemas sul)- scribed by more than 300 bishops. He was ban- ished into lUyricum. Two prelates shared his fate, Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of I'tolemais. His books were burnt. The Arians, joined by their old Mclctian friends, created troubles in .Alexandria. lOuspbius persuaded C'onstantine to recall the exile by iiululgont letters in 328; and the emperor not only permitted his return to Alexandria in 331, but ordered Atlianasius to reconcile him with the Church. On the saint's refusal more disturbance ensued. The packed and partisan Synod of Tyre deposed .\thanasius on a series of futile charges in 335. Catholics were now persecuted; Arins had an inter- view with Constantine and submitted a creed which the emperor judged to be ortliodox. Hy imperial rescript Arius refjuired Alexander of Constantinople to give him Communion; but the stroke of Provi- dence defeated an attempt which Catholics looked upon as a sacrilege. The heresiarch died suddenly, and was buried by liis own people. He had winning manners, an evasive style, and a disputatious tem- per. But in the controversy which is called after nis name Arius counted only at the beginning. He did not represent the tradition of Alexandria but the topical subtleties of Antioch. Hence, his disappear- ance from the scene neither stayed the combatants nor ended the quarrel which he had rashly provoked. A party-theologian, he exhibited no features of gen- ius; and he was the product, not the founder, of a school.

SozoMEN. H. E., 1, CS. 69; Theodoret. H. E., 1; SocnATEB. //. E., 1; PHlLOftTOHG., 1; Athan., De Sj/nodit: Euseb., De Vild Contlantini: Rchn.. //. E., 1; Travasa. Vita di Ario (Venice, 1746); Gibbon. XXI; Newman, Ariam, 2,3; Tracts, Cauaet of Arianism. Sco also Ariam.sm.

William Barry.

Arizona, said to have been, probably in the original form of the word, Arizotiac, and in this form a I'ima (Indian) word of which the meaning is unknown. With perhaps le.ss probability there has been assigned to the word a Spanish origin. The motto of .Vrizona is Dilal Deus. It is one of the continental territories of the United States of .Amer- ica, bounded on the north by the State of Utah, on the south by the Republic of Mexico, on the east by the Territory of New Mexico, and on the west by the States of California and Nevada, be- tween latitude 31" and 37°, and longitude 109° and U.'>°.

History. — The region embraced in the Terri- tory w.'is ceded to the United States by Mexico, a portion in 1848, by the treaty of Clu.adalupe Hidalgo, and the remainder in 185-1, by the Gadsden treaty. Until 1863, this region was part of the Territory of New Mexico, and at the time of its


Seal of Arizo.va


acquisition by the United States, Indians were almost the only inhabitants of this country, reputed to be rich in |)rccious metals. Among those who llockeil to the new domain were fugitives from jus- tice, persons expelled by the Vigilance Committee of San Francisco, and .Mexicans of a degraded class. The history of the early years follow- ing the cession is a sad record of vio- lence and lawlessness the white tants, and p 1 o r a b 1 e


general among inhabi- of de- Indian troubles. "Murder and other crimes are committed with impunity", is the statement of Presi- dent Buchanan to Congress in 18.58,

when rcjicating his recommendation of 1857 that a ter- ritorial giivcrnment be established, a statement and reciinimenilation which he reiterated in 18.59. Ex- amining the cau.ses of the Indian troubles, the traveller, Raphael Pumpelly. contrasts the .selfish aims of the frontiersmen with the missionary zeal of the Jesuits who had formerly laboured in Spanish America, and their success in elevating the condition of the Indians, a success who.se limit "was always determined by the cupidity of the home government, and of the mining population", (^uite contrary to the fact, a report prevailed aljout the time of the cession, that the Jesuits themselves had worked mines in the region during tlic former years. .Al- though evil conditions continued, the Territory of Arizona was not established by law until 1863. In 1864 the new Territory was invailetl by the forces of the Southern Confederacy wliich were defeated by volunteer troops of California. Internal disorders did not cease tm the organization of a territorial government. In 1870 the Tcrritorj' was much harried by Indians, and in 1871 its Governor declared that "all the Arizonians felt discouraged". Even in 1882, President .Arthur conveyed to Congress the report of the Governor of Arizona that violence and anarchy prevailed. This condition was at that time largely attributed to "Cow-boys", and Indian disturbances were prevalent for some years there- after.

Population, Climate, Resources, etc. — The Territory's seat of government, temporarily estab- lished in 1864 at Prescott, was, in 18(57, fixed at Tucson, and, in 1877, transferred to Prescott again. Phcenix is the present capital. The twelfth United States census, besides 24,644 Indians, reports a population, in 1900, of 122,931. By the census of 1860 the population of .Arizona, then a county of New Mexico, appears to have been only 6,482. Of the population in 1900, there were 98,698 natives and 24,233 foreigners. Of negro descent there were 1,848. Including in the list tho.se who could only rea<l, with those who could neither read nor write, 25.4 per cent of the males of voting age were illit- erate. Of males 15 years of age and over. 49.5 per cent were single, 43.6 per cent married, and .7 per cent divorced. Of females 15 years of age and over, 21 per cent were single, 64.8 per cent married and 1 per cent divorced.

-According to the report of the chief of the Weather Bureau, the highest temperature observed at any weather station in .Arizona during the year 1903 was 120°, the lowest 18°. Two stations report each of these extremes. The smallest rain-fall