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reward, when Antioch had been taken (1097), Con- stantine, the son of Roupen, received from the crusaders the title of baron. Within a century, the heirs of Roupen were further rewarded by the grant of a liinedom known a-s Cihcia or I^esser Armenia, to be held as a vassal govertunent of the Holy See and of Germany. This kept them in touch with the crusaders. No doubt the Armenians aided in some of the other crusades. This kingdom lasted till 1375, when the Mamelukes of Egypt destroyed it.

V. To THE Emd of the Seventkknth Ce.ntury. — The establishment of the Kingdom of Lesser Armenia created more fre(iuent n-lations between the Armenians and the Holy See. On the occasion of tlie crowning of King I.eo II, the union of the .\rmonian C'hurcli with Rome was proclaimed under Catholicos (Iregorj' VI. Only southern Armenia was affected by this. In 12.51, however, there took place at Sis at the order of Pope Innocent IV a council of Armenians to witness to their belief in the procession of the Holy Ghost. In strange con- trast we find James I refusing to send representatives to the Council of Lyons. Vet, when I'ope Boni- face VIII began his pontificate, Catholicos (ireg- ory VII sent to him an expression of filial attachment. A little later (1307) a council was held by the .\r- mcnians in which the old error of .Moiiopliysitism was repudiated, and two natures acknowledged in Christ. The bonds of union which united Rome and .\nnenia during this period gave way more or less after the fall of Lesser .\rmenia in 1375. Harassed from with- out by the Turks, and weakened by the internal strifes that divided it into so many independent patriarchates, Armenia had after that date but spasmodic relations with Rome. Which of the patriarchs during this period remained united to the West is hard to deternune. Yet, even in the darkest days, there were always some .\rmenians who re- mained attached to Rome. The Dominican mis- sionaries in founding in .\rmenian territory were instrumental in the training of native mis- sionaries called the "L^nited Brothers", whose sole aim was to procure union with Rome. Their fotmder, John of Kerni, went too far in his zeal, so that Pope Benedict XII was forced to have the Armenians assemble in council in 1342 and repudiate the errors ascribed to these monks. These cries of unorthodoxy did much to estrange .\rmenia from tlie West. The Fathers of the Council of Basle (1433) asked the catholicos to attend, but the invitation was not accepted. However in the Council of Florence (1439) .\rmenia was represented, and here a last attempt was made to bring about reunion. It was at the behest of Eugenius IV that Catholicos Constantine V had despatched his delegates. The decree " Exultate Deo", which was to effect the union, was published in 1439, containing among other things the Nicene Creed, the definitions of Clialcedon, and the Lette.' of Pope Leo I. Meanwhile. Coi\stanlinQ died. A few years later a rent occurred in the Ar- menian Church which gave a setback to the plan of union. Armenia was divided into two large juris- dictions, that of Sis in Cilicia and that of Etchmiad- zin in Greater Armenia, each with its own catholicos. The latter of the two patriarchates was looked upon as devoted to the of imion with Rome. Its Catholicos, Stephanos V, paid a visit to the Eternal City, and in ItiSO Aghob IV, just before his death, made a profession of Catholic faith, an example fol- lowed by many of his successors. Some of the patriarchs of Sis were friendly to Rome, such as Gregory IX, while others were hostile.

Vi. Catholic Missions in the Nineteenth Century. — The action of Count Ferriol, minister of Louis XIV at Stamboul (1(589-1709), in carrj-ing ofT to Paris the Armenian Patriarch of Constanti- nople, who evinced strong anti-Catholic tendencies, I.— 47

served to bring persecution upon the Armenian Catholics in the lurkish Empire, which histed till 1830. The declaration of religious lil)erty at that time<l the (.'atholic missions in Armenia to become more energetic than ever before. In 1838, Eugene Bore, still a layman, founded at Tibriz and Ispahan two schools for Armenians, which the French Lazarists have since cimducted. Within twenty years this order had tliree other mi.ssions. The barefooted (Carmelites with B:igdad as their centre are labouring for the Armenians in that city and Biussorah. Since 18.50 the French Dominicans have been active in the provinces of Mossoul, Bitlis, and Van. The Capuchins are also represented in this field and are working with Diarbekir as their head- quarters. Lesser Armenia is a field cultivated chielly by Jesuit missionaries, and, unlike the rest, their elTorts are confined to the ArmeniaiLs. The Oblate .Sisters of the Assumption and the Sisters of St. Joseph from Lyons are effectively aiding them in their work, in which some 31 Fathers and Brothers are engaged.

When we come to statistics, we find that out of a population of Armenians comprising from two to three millions, approximate figures give to Prot- estantism 40,000 to 50,000, to Catholicism 60,000 to 70,000, the rest to the Gregorian or non-l'niat Church of Constantinople. Of the Catholic Ar- menians, the greater part are under the patriarch, whose full title is "the Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians", and whose residence is at Constanti- nople. Under his jurisdiction are 3 other Armenian archbishops, 12 bishops, 1 being at Alexandria in Egypt, 9 patriarchal vicars, one of whom resides at Jerusalem. In Rome there is a titular bishop for the .Armenians, whose chief fiinction is that of ordain- ing. The Armenian patriarch is assisted in the work of tending to his flock by a vicar who is a titular archbishop, by an ecclesiastical council com- posed of 12 priests, by a civil council and by two other councils, one of which is for the national hospi- tal. Directly under his charge are 3 large cliurches, that of St. Gregory the Illuminator at Leghorn, those of St. Blaise and St. Nicholas at Rome, the 2 seminaries of Zmar and Rome, and finally the 16 churches and the 16 .schools of Constantinople. In the Armenian Archbishopric of Lemherg there are about 5,500 faithful, the greater part being in Galicia, the rest in Bukowina. The religious orders among the Armenians are of but comparatively recent origin and are not very prosperous. The Mechitarists of Venice, the most flourishing, have but 60 priests and some lay-brothers. The Mechitarists of Vienna are not quite so numerous. Among the women, the Armenian Sisters of the Immaculate Conception have flourishing schools at Constantinople an<l Angora.

Pktit in th^ol.cath., n. v.; IIkkgknrotiikr. hirrheU'

?fsch.: IssAVERDES'S, Armcnii and the Armeniins: Gei./er, }ie Anflinqe der armen. Kirche: Piolet, Les missiont caihO" luiwt au XIXe siMe: Chamich. Hiatory of Armenia: NfcVE, LArm,'nie chnticnne el la liUfralure.

J.\mes F. Driscoll. Annenierstadt (Hungarian, Szamos-Ujvar, Lat., Armcnn/mtis), a city in the Transylvanian county of Szolnok-Doboka, situated on the upjier Szamos. an eastern tributary of the Theiss, and the seat of a Uniat Greek diocese (Armcnopolis) that embraces the northern part of Transylvania; the see is suf- fragan to the Archbishop of Fogaras and Alba Julia, who resides at Blasendorf. The city was founded about 1700 by Armenians who emigrated at the be- ginning of the fourteenth century Armenia and settled first on the banks of the Krim and .Moldau. In the second half of the .seventeenth centurv' they moved to Transylvania, and after a two years' stniggle on the part of the Armenian-Catholic Bishop .■\ux- entius Verzereskul. they were converted from F.uty- chianism to Catholicism. By the Bull "Ad Apoa-