believed by us distinctly and separately from any- thing else we properly and appositely call an arti-
Macdonald, The St/mhol (New York, 1903); Pf,8CH. Prae- Itctionet Dogmaticoc (freiburg. 1898), VIII, nos. 192. 441, 448, 439.
John J. Wynne.
Articles, The Organic; a name given to a law regu- lating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catliolicism, and 44 relative to Protestantism, presented by order of Napoleon to the Tribunate and the legislative body at the same time that he made the.se two bodies vote on the Concordat itself. Together with the Concordat, the Organic Articles were published as a law, under the same title and the same preamble, 8 April, 1802, and the various governments in France which have since followed one another, down to 1905, have always professed to regard the Organic Articles as inseparable from the Concordat. Pope Pius VH, however, as early as 24 Maj^, 1802, declared formally, in a consistorial allocution, that these articles had been promulgated without his knowledge, and that he could not accept them without modification.
The Organic Articles which refer to Catholicism fall under four titles. Title I deals with " the gov- ernment of the Catholic Church in its general rela- tions to the rights and constitution of tiie State." In virtue of these articles, the authorization of the Government is necessary for the publication and execution of a papal document in France; for the exercise of ecclesiastical functions by any representa- tive of the pope, for the holding of a National Coun- cil or a Diocesan Synod. Moreover, the Council of State, thanks to the formality of the appel comme rf abus, may declare that there is abus in any given acts of the ecclesiastical authority, and thus thrust itself into the affairs of the Church. Title II deals with the ministers of public worship, whose powers it defines: the rules and regulations of seminaries must be submitted to the State; the "Declaration of 1682" must be taught in the semi- naries; the number of those to be ordained must be fixed yearly by the Government; the cvris of important parishes cannot be appointed by the bishop without the consent of the State. Under Title III, devoted to public worship, the legislature forbids public processions in towns where there are adherents of different creeds. It fixes the dress of the priests, who must be dressed "in the French fashion and in black"; it prescribes that there shall be only one catechism for all the churches of France. Article IV has reference to the boundaries of dioceses and parishes, and to the salary of ministers of re- ligion.
It was not long, however, before many of these articles became a dead letter. M. Emile Ollivier, in his speech from the tribune. 11 July, 1868, said: "It would be difficult to cite even one or two that are still kept; even these are not enforced every day, but are only dragged from their nothingness and obscurity on great occasions, when there is need of seeming to do something while doing nothing." Even the Third Republic has never claimed the right to prevent the bringing of papal documents into France, to fix the dress of the priests, to insist on the teacliing of the Declaration of 1682, and the judgments Tanquam ab abusu, pronounced by the Council of State against the bishops, have always been mildly platonic.
The Organic .\rticles as such were the outcome, philosophically speaking, of a certain Gallican and Josephist spirit, wlierehy the State sought to rule the Church. Historically speaking, the French Leg- islature in drawing up these articles, which limited the scope of the Concordat, had set an unfortunate example, followed twenty years later by the various
German governments, which having in their turn treated witli the Holy See, hastened to counteract their own agreements by means of certain territorial enactments.
The law of 190.5, which separated Church and State in France, abrogated the Organic Articles at the same time that it abrogated the Concordat. (See
CoNCORD,\T OF 1801.)
Georges Goyai:. Articles, The Thirty-xixe. See Anglicanism;
Artoklasia (Gr. iJpTos = bread, KXdu=to break, the breaking of bread). A peculiar service in the Greek Church performed as the concluding part of Vespers. Five loaves of ordinary bread, a measure of wine, and a measure of oil are set upon the analo- gion before the iconostasis in front of the altar. These are first incensed, and then the priest taking one of the loaves into his hands blesses them as follows: "O Lord Jesus Christ our God, Who didst bless the five loaves in the desert and satisfy therewith five thousand men, do Tliyself bless these loaves also, the wheat, the wine and the oil; multiply them in tliis holy abode unto all the world; and sanctify the faithful servants of Thine who may partake of them. For Thou art He who blesseth and halloweth and nourisheth all good things, O Christ our God, and to Thee we send up glory with Thine unoriginate Father and Tliine all-holy and good and life-giving Spirit, now and forever, world without end ". Af- terwards the xxxiii Psalm is said, ending with the chanting of the eleventh verse: "The ricri have become poor and have suffered hunger; but they that seek the Lord shall not be deprived of any good things", knd then the people are blessed. This office was introduced in monasteries where the monks kept an all-night vigil and the food was necessary for them, but gradually it became a Church office for the whole Eastern Rite. Origi- nally there was a breaking of the bread and a distribution of the bread and wine, but that has been discontinued, although the Greek rubric still says, " Note that the blessed bread is a preventive of all manner of evils if it is received with faith". The ceremony of artoklasia is now seldom used in the Greek Catholic Church, since, in imitation of the Roman Rite, the Benediction of the Blessed Sacra- ment according to a Greek form has taken its place. Cldonet, Dirt, drs nom» liturgiques (Paris, IS93) 19; Rob- ertson, Divine it(urjK»- (London, 1894) 56-59.
Andrew J. Shipman
Artotyristse. See Mont.\nists.
Arts, Bachelor of, a degree marking the comple- tion of the traditional curriculum of the college. In the medieval universities, the Mastership, or Doctor- ate, was the great academic prize. The Bachelorship does not appear to have existed at first, either at Bologna or Paris. It probably originated from the practice of employing the more advanced students to assist in teaching those who were younger, such teaching being regarded as a preparation for the Mas- tership. Before being allowed to begin to teach, the student had to maintain a thesis or disputation in public. The technical term for this was "Deter- mination ". To "determine ' ' meant, for the student , to resolve questions in a public disputation in order to prove his fitness to enter upon the second stage of his career for the Mastership. "Determination" was thus an imitation of "Inception", which ad- mitted to the Mastership, and like the latter it soon developed into a mere academic ceremony, examina- tions being held beforeliand to ascertain the fitness of the candidate. Of these there were two, a pre- liminary one, known as " Responsions ". and a second one, more severe, known as Examen Baccalarian-