f\illv drcsseil. the woiiu'ii being picturesque in shawls Hiuf gowns of tlieir own weaving, decorated with ril)- iMinsand worked witli liunian and animal ligures, |)ar- tieularly that of (he eagle. They have si ill their own calendar of thirteen months, with days hearing animal names. The second volume of I'imentel's "Cuadro" contains a sketch of the language. See also Z.^potec. Banchdft. Hisl. .i;,ji,-,.. II (.S:,ii Kraiuisfi), 1886); Bauer, Htidi'ilum 1/11, ( Ah.niUuilu- iinirr ilrn Manilrfa-Indianem in Zntschr.!„r EthnoUmir. XL (Hi-rlin. 1908); Huinton, .-ImOTcan Race (N. Y., l.sni); Pimentki., Cuadro . . . de las Lenguaa Jndigenasde Mexico (2 vols., Mexico, 1862-5) ; Starr, In Indian Mexico (Chicago, 1908). JaMES Mooney.
Mazdeism. See Avesta, The.
Mazenod, Chahles Joseph Eugene db, Bishop of Marseilles, and Founder of the Congregation of the Oblatcs of Mary Immaculate, b. at Aix, in Provence, 1 August, 1782; d. at Marseilles 21 May, 1861. De Mazenod was the ofTspring of a noble family of south- ern France, and even in his tender years he showed un- mistakable evidence of a pious disposition and a high and independent spirit. Sharing the fate of most French noblemen at the time of the Revolution, he pa.ssed some years as an exile in Italy, after which he studied for the priesthood, though he was the last representative of his family. On 21 December, 1811, he was ordained priest at Amiens, whither he had gone to escape receiving orders at the hands of Cardinal Maury, who was then governing the archdiocese of Paris' against the wishes of the pope. After some years of ecclesiastical labours at Aix, the young priest, bewailing the sad fate of religion resulting among the masses from the French Revolution, gathered to- gether a little Ijand of missionaries to preach in the vernacular and to instruct the rural populations of Provence. He commenced, 25 January, 1816, his Institute which was immediately prolific of much good among the people, and on 17 February, 1826, was solemnly approved by Leo XII under the name of Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
After having aided for some time his uncle, the aged Bishop of Marseilles, in the administration of his dio- cese. Father De Mazenod was called to Rome azul, on 14 October, 1832, consecrated titular Bishop of Ico- sium, which title he had, in the beginning of 1837, to exchange for that of Bishop of Marseilles. His episco- pate was marked by measures tending to the restora- tion in all its integrity of ecclesiastical discipline. De Mazenod unceasingly strove to uphold the rights of the Holy See, somewhat obscured in France by the pretensions of the Galilean Church. He fa- voured the moral teachings of Blessed (now Saint) Alphonsus Liguori, whose theological system he was the first to introduce in France, and whose first life in French he caused to be WTitten by one of his disciples among the Oblates. At the same time he watched with a jealous eye over the education of youth, and, in spite of the susceptibilities of the civil power, he never swerved from what he considered the path of justice. In fact, by the apostolic freedom of his public utter- ances he cleserved to be compared to St. Ambrose. He ■was ever a strong supporter of papal infallibility and a devout advocate of Mary's immaculate conception, in the solemn definition of which (1854) he took an active part. In spite of his well-known outspokenness, he was made a Peer of the French Empire, and in 1851 Pius IX gave him the pallium.
Meanwhile he continuetl as Superior General of the religious family he had foimiled and whose fortunes will be found described in the article on the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Such was the esteem in which he was held at Rome that the pope had marked him out as one of the cardinals he was to create when death claimed him at the ripe age of ahno.st seventy-nine.
Cooke, Sketches of the Life of Mot de Mazenod. Bishop of Mar- leillea (London and Dublin, 187!l); Rambkht. Vic de Mgr C. J. E. De Mazenod (Tours, lS8:i); Kkakd, Mgr de Mazenod, evfque de Marteitle (Paris, n. d.). A. G. MoRICE.
Mazzara del Vallo, Diocese or (Mazahiensis). — The city is situated in the province of Trepani, Sicily, on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Mazzara River. It carries on a large lemon trade, has several 'mineral sjjrings in the vicinity, and occupies the site of the emporium of aticient Selinus. The i)ort very early attracted a Megarian colony (630 u. c); in 409 D. c. it was taken by the Carthaginians; and in 24!) was com- pletely destroyed and its inhaliitants deported to Lily- bsum (Marsala), (ji'adually there arose around the port a new city, captured by the Saracens in 827. It was later made the capital of one of the three great valli into which the Saracens divided Sicily. In the struggle of the Saracens against the Normans for the possession of the island, Mazzara was hotly contested, especially in 1075 when the Saracens were completely routed by Count Roger. The episcopal See of Lily- bseuni was then transferred to Mazzara. Of the bish- ops of Lilyba;um the best known is Paschasinus, legate of Leo I at the Council of Chalcedon (451). The first Bishop of Mazzara was Stefano de Ferro, a relative of Count Roger (1093). The cathedral was then founded, and later embellished by Bishop Tristiano (1157). Other noteworthy bishops were Cartlinal Bessarion (1449); CJiovanni da Monteaperto (1470), who restored the cathedral and founded a library; Ber- nardo Gasco (1579), of Toledo, founder of the semi- nary; Cardinal Gian Domenico Spinola (1637); the Franciscan Francesco M. GralTeo (1685). In 1844 the newly erected diocese of Marsala was separated from Mazzara. Mazzara is a suffragan of Palermo, has 23 parishes, 430 priests, 5 religious houses of men and 29 of women, 3 schools for boys and 25 for girls, and a population of 276,000.
Cappelle-™, Le Chiese d'llalia, XXI (Venice, 1857).
Mazzella, Camillo, theologian and cardinal, b. at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900. He entered the ecclesiastical seminary of Benevento when about eleven years of age, completed his classi- cal, philosophical, and theological studies before his twenty-fourth year, and was ordained priest in Sept., 1855, a dispensation for defect of canonical age having been granted by Pius IX. For two years after his ordination he remained at Vitulano, attending to the duties of canon in the parish church, a position he held from his family. Resigning this office he entered the Society of Jesus, 4 Sept., 1857. On the expulsion of the Jesuits from Italy in 1860, he was sent to Fourvieres, where after reviewing his theology for a year and making a public defence "de universa theo- logia", he taught dogmatic theology for three years, and moral theology for two. In the early autumn of 1867 he came to .\merica and taught theology for two years to the members of the Society of Jesus at f ieorge- towm University, Washington. On the opening of Woodstock College, Maryland, he was appointed pre- fect of studies and professor of dogmatic theology. While there he published four volumes: " De Religione et Ecclesia", " De Deo Creante ", " De Gratia Chri-sti", and " De virtutibus infusis", which went through sev- eral editions. In October, 1878, he was called to Rome by Leo XIII to fill the chair of theology at the Grego- rian University, left vacant by Father Franzelin's elevation to the cardinalate, and shortly afterwards, on the retirement of Father Kleutgen, was made pre- fect of studies. On 7 June, 1886, Leo XIII created Father Mazzella a cardinal deacon. Ten years later he became cardinal priest. Not quite a year after- wards (18 April, 1897), at theexpress wish of the pope, he became Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina, to the gov- ernment of which see he applied himself with untiring energy. He was the first Jesuit on whom was be- stowexl the dignity of cardinal bishop. As cardinal he took an active i)art in the deliberations of a num- ber of Congregations, was for several years president