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of the Academy of St. Thomas, and, at various times, prefect of the Congregations of the Index, of Studies, and of Rites.

Timothy Brosnahan.

Mazzolini, Lodovico (also known as Mazzolini da Ferrara, Lodovico Ferraresa, and IlFerrarese), Itahan painter, b. in Ferrara in 1480; d., according to one account, in 1528, and to another, in 1530; place of death unknown. This artist is generally represented as having been a pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and as having come under the influence of Ercole Roberti, but should be more correctly described as a pupil of Panetti. Morelli called him "the Glow-worm", " der Gliih- wurm", from his brilliant gem-like colour and lumi- nous sparkling quality, and he proved that Mazzolini was a pupil of Panetti rather than Costa, by the form of the ear aiv 'and in his paintings, by his landscape backgrounds with steep conical blue mountains and streaks of dazzling white, and by his scheme of colour. Comparing Lorenzo Costa with Perugino, Morelli com- pares Panetti with Pintorrichio, although he says as an artist the Perugian far surpassed the somewhat dry and narrow-minded artist of Ferrara, but it is per- fectly clear that it was to this dry and so-called narrow- minded man that Mazzolini owed his excellent work. The architectural backgrounds of his pictures are their specially distinctive feature, and notalily the creamy- toned marble. Attention should further be directed to his use of gold in the high lights of his draperies.

Of his personal history we know nothing, save that he worked both in Ferrara and Bologna, and that he married in 1521 Giovanna, the daughter of Bartolo- meo Vacchi, a Venetian painter. His most notable picture represents Christ disputing with the doctors, is dated 1524, and to be seen at Berlin. It is in his pictures with small figures that he displays the power of imparting pleasure, as his gift was rather in the direction of genre than of historical painting, and to most observers there is something curiously Flem- ish about his work. There is a second important pic- ture of his in Berlin, a Virgin and Child, two at the Louvre, one in J'errara, three in the National Gallery, and three in Florence, other examples in Munich, and in various private collections. The chief work of his in England is one belonging to Lord Wimborne. He is also represented in the galleries of Turin, St. Peters- burg, The Hague, and in the Capitol at Rome, the Doria, and the Borghese.

Baruffaldi Girolamo, Vite dei Piitori Ferraresi (Ferrara), in MS., also the UreHi MS. (Bologna); Orlandi, Ahbecedario PiUorico (Bologna, 1719); Vasari, Le Vite dei Pittori (Florence, 1878, 1885).

George Charles Williamson.

Mazzolini (Mozolini, also Prierias), Sylvester, theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, 1523 — sometimes confounded with Sylvester Ferrari- ensis (d. 1526). At the age of fifteen he entered the Order of St. Dominic. Passing brilliantly through a course of studies he taught theology at Bologna, Pavia (by invitation of the senate of Venice), and in Rome, whither he was called by Julius II in 1511. In 1515 he was apj^ointed Master of the Sacred Palace, filling that office until his death. His writings cover a vast range, including treatises on the planets, the power of the demons, history, homiletics, the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, the primacy of the popes. He is credited with being the first theologian who by his writings attacked publicly the subversive errors of Martin Luther. John Tetzel's productions against the arch-reformer are called by Echard scattered pages (folia vnlilanti/t), and Mazzolini stands forth as the first champion of the Roman Pontiffs against Luther. The heresiarch replied to Mazzolini's arguments; the latter published rejoinders, and there was a regular contro- versy between the innovator and the defender of the ancient Faith. The necessity of promptness in attack

and defence will account for defects of style in some of his writings. His principal works are: " De juridica et irrefragabili veritate Romanae Ecclesias Romanique Pontificis" (Rome, 1520); " Epitoma responsionis ad Lutherum " (Perugia, 1519) ; " Errata et argumenta M. Lutheri" (Rome, 1520); "Summa Sunnnarum, quaj Sylvestrina dicitur" (Rome, 1516), reprinted forty times; an alphabetical encyclopfedia of theological questions; "Rosa aurea" (Bologna, 1510) an exposi- tion of the Gospels of the year; "In theoricas plane- tarum" (Venice, 1513).

QoKTiF-EcHAUD, SS. Ord. Freed.. 11, 55; Todron, Hommes iliust. de I'Ordre de S. Dominique, III, 716; Michalski, De Sytv. Prieratis , . . vita et scriptis (Munster, 1S92).

D. J. Kennedy.

Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco (also known as II MoRAZzoNE, Marazzone, and Moranzone), Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near Milan, either in 1571 or 1575; d. at Piacenza in 1626. In the early part of his life, this painter resided in Rome, where he painted various altar-pieces, then he passed on to Venice, and made a profound study of the work of Titian, Tinto- retto, and Paolo Veronese, so entirely altering his style and improving his scheme of colour, that the pictures he painted when he came to Milan, although repre- senting subjects similar to those he had carried out in Rome, could hardly be recognized as having come from the same hand. He was patronized by Cardinal Borommeo, and from the Duke of Savoy received the honour of knighthood and the order of St. Maurice. In 1626 he was called to Piacenza to paint the cupola of the cathedral, but was not able to finish this work, which he commenced in a grand and vigorous style, and died, it is believed, from an accident in connec- tion with the scaffolding, in consequence of which Guercino was called in to complete the work. The chief painting by Mazzuchelli is that in the church of San Ciiovanni at Como, and represents St. Michael and the angels.

Vasari, G., Le Vite dei Pittori (Florence, 1878, 1885); Or- landi, P. P., Abbecedario Pitlorico (Bologna, 1719), also the Orelli MS. (Bologna).

George Charles Williamson.

Mazzuola, Francesco. See Parmigiano, II.

Mbaya Indians (Guaycdbu), a predatory tribe for- merly- raiiniiit,' on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the north and northwest Paraguay frontier, and in the adjacent portion of the Province of Matto Grosso, Brazil. They are one of a group of equestrian warlike and savage tribes, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Guaycuran, formerly roving over Northern Paraguay and the upper Chaco region, and of which the best known are the Abipon, made famous by the missionary DobrizhofTer, the Guaycurd proper, or Mbaya, the Mocobi and the still savage and powerful Toba. The Lengua, sometimes included under the same name, are now known to be a branch of the Chi- quito of Bolivia. The name, Mbaya, given to them by the more peaceful Guarani, signifies " terrible ", " bad ", or "savage". The name Guaycuru, now most com- monly used, is said to mean "runner". They have also been called Caballeros by the Spaniards, on ac- count of their fine horsemanship. According to Father Lozano they had three main divisions, viz: Epi- cua-yiqui (Eyiguayegi) in the North, Napin-yiqui in the West, and Taqui-yiqui in the South. lolis, an- other authority, gives a different list of six divisions.

The Guaycuni were accustomed to prey upon the more sedentary and industrious Guarani tribes, mak- ing sudden raids, with quick retreats into their own country, where tangled forests and treacherous swamps made pursuit difficult and subjection almost impossible. In 1542, Alvar Nufiez Calie^a de Vaca, governor of Buenos Aires, with a detachment of Spaniards and a contingent of Guarani, inflicted upon them a signal defeat, chiefly by the terror of his field guns and horses, with both of which the Guaycuru