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MENDOZA


187


MENEVIA


captain-general of Siena in Tuscany, whence he re- turned to Spain in 1554.

As a poet Mendoza excelled in both the older Span- ish and the new Italian measures, but his specimens of the latter show more richness of thought, and he probably exercised considerable influence in popular- izing and securing the triumph of the Italian school of lyric poetry in Spain. In his "Gucrra de Granada", published in Lisbon in 1627, he shows himself a master of prose. It was written dm-ing his exile at Granada (1568-1571), whither he had been sent by Philip II after some trouble with a noble at court, and is a masterly piece of Spanish prose WTiting. His"La- zarillo de Tormes" is a work of genius. He is said to have written it while he was at the university or soon after leaving it. It is the autobiography of a boy born on the banks of the Tormes near Salamanca, and its object is to satirize all classes of Spanish society. It is written in rich idiomatic Spanish, and after 1553, when it first appeared, it went through many editions, both in Spain and abroad. Like other books that enjoy great popularity, it led to many imitations.

Just before his death he presented to Philip II for the Escurial library his valuable collection of books and manuscripts including the Araljic ones he had found in Granada, and they remain there to this day. La Biblioteea de Autores Espanoles (Madrid, 1848-86) publishes his "Lazarillo" in the third volume, his poems in the thirty-second, and selected works in the twenty-first and thirty-sixth volumes.

TicKNoR, History of Spanish Literal. (Boston, 1S66); Fitz- MAURICE- Kelly, History of Spanish Literat. (New York, 1906).

Ventura Fuentes.

Mendoza, Francisco Sabmiento de, Spani.sh canonist and bishop; b. of a noble family at Burgos; d. 1595, at Jaen. He made such progress in his studies at Salamanca that at the age of 21 years he already occupied a professorial chair in canon law. After being auditor for six years at VaUadolid, he was ap- pointed auditor of the rota in Rome and held tliis office for twelve years. In 1574 he became Bishop of Astorga, whence he was transferred to the more im- portant See of Jaen in 1580. He was a model bishop and extremely charitable. He wrote some works on canon law, the best known of which are "Selectarum interpretationum hbri VIII " (Rome, 1571, Burgos, 1573, 1575, Antwerp, 1616), and" Deredditibus eccle- siasticis" (Rome, 1569, Burgos, 1573, 1575). In the latter, which is dedicatetl to Pius V, he argues against the famous canonist Martin Azpilcueta, that clerics are not bound in justice, but only in charity, to give to the poor that part of their revenues which is not necessary for their own sustenance. His complete works were published in three volumes (Antwerp, 1616).

Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana nova (Madrid, 1783-8), I. 476; ScHULTE, Die Geschiehte der Quellcn und Literatur des Canoni- sehen Rechtr.s (.Stuttgart, 1880), I, 729.

Michael Ott.

Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de, Cardinal and Pri- mate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495. He came to the court of King Juan II of Castile in 1450, was made canon of Toledo the same year, and became Bishop of Calahorra on 28 November, 1453, and of Siguenza on 30 October, 1467. - On 7 May, 1473, he was created cardinal- deacon with the titular church of S . Maria in Dominica ; on 9 May, 1474, he became Archbishop of Seville; on 6 July, 1478, cardinal-priest with the titular church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme; and finally, on 13 November, 1482, Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain. From S July, 1482, to 15 January, 1483, he was also administrator of the Diocese of Osma. In 1473 he was appointed chancellor of King Henry IV of Castile and, after Henry's death in 1474, grand chancellor of Ferdinand and Isabella. In his younger


days he lived a life of laxity, but, during the twenty- two years of his chancellorship, he used his great in- fluence for the good of the Church and his country, being one of the few great men of Spain who advocated the cause of Columbus. His great revenues were consumed in the erection of magnificent churches and charitable institutions; at Valladohd he erected at his own expense the College of Santa Cruz for poor students, and at Toledo a hospital of the same name for foundlings. To the latter he bequeathed his en- tire fortune of 75,000 ducats. On his death-bed he recommended the great Ximenes as his successor.

Medina y Mendoza. Yida del cardenal Pedro Gonzales de Mendoza in Memorial histor. EspaAol, VI (Madrid, 1853), 147- 310; Salazak de Mendoza, Cronica de el gran cardenal de Es- pana, don Pedro Gonfalcs de Mendofa (Toledo, 1625) ; Prescott, Hist, of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, passim, especially pt. ii, chap. V

Michael Ott.

Menendes de Aviles, Pedro. See Florida.

Meneses, Osorio Francisco, Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705. It is extraordinary that so very httle is known of his history. He was not only a pupil of Murillo, but by far the most perfect of his imitators, and undoubtedly many of the works commonly attributed to the master came from the brush of liis pupil. We know that he was regarded by Murillo as his friend, that he was an intimate ac- quaintance of Juan Garzon, with whom he worked, that he was at one time secretary, and later on presi- dent of the Academy of Seville, and that while in that city he hail a high reputation, not only for his skill, but also for his personal devoutness. Tliis reputation, it is said, was somewhat discounted after his death. De- cause it was considered that some of his copies of Murillo's works were so accurate that he should have signed the master's name. It was in fact suggested that two of his copies had been accepted as genuine works by Murillo. On the other hand, these statements are declared by one Spanish author to have been made only with a view of discrediting Meneses. His princi- pal work was painted for the church of Saint Martin at Madrid, and represents the Prophet Elijah. There is a fine work by him in the museum at Cadiz, and in tlie museum at Seville, a picture dealing with the Order of St. Francis. A work representing St. Catherine, which is preserved at Cadiz, is said to have been commenced by Murillo. Meneses is stated to have had a special devotion for St. Philip Neri, and to have been buried in the church dedicated to that saint.

QuiLLlET. Dietionnaire des Peintres Espagnols (Paris, 1816); Palomino de Castro y Velasco, El Museo Pictorieo y Escala (Madrid, 1715); Mkhwei-u Annals of the Artists of Spain (Lon- don, 1848); Huahd, Vie Completedes Peintres Espagnols (Paris, 1839).

George Charles Williamson.

Menevia, Diocese op (Menevensis).— Jlffi«eCTo is said to he derived from Menapia, the name of an an- cient Roman settlement supposetl to have existed in Pembrokeshire, or Iliii Mi m u (vetus rubus) whore St. David was born. I'Vom tlu^ time of the establishment of the four vicars Apostolic in England, in 1688, Wales belonged to the Vicariate of the Western District. In 1840 it was made a separate vicariate by Gregory XVI : in 1850 the Catholic hierarchy was re-established, and Wales was divided between the Dioceses of Shrewsbury and Newport. In 1895 the principality, with the exception of Glamorganshire was again formed into a separate vicariate Apostolic. Right Rev. Francis Joseph Mostyn, son of Sir Pyers Mostyn, eighth bar- onet, of Talacre in Nort.h Wales, was appointed first vicar Apostolic, his titular see Ijcing A.scalon. In 1898 he was transferred to Menevia when the vicariate was made a diocese by Leo XIII. The Bishop of Menevia is the only member of the hierarchy who holds one of the ancient titles of pre-Reformation times. The diocese is under the patronage of Our Lady Help of Christians, St. David, and St. Winefride, patrons of