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Wales. It covers 0500 square miles of country, most of Glamorganshire, in all some 3500 square miles.

of which is rugged ami mountainous; there are nB large towns, so that the CathoHc population of some 8500 souls is much scattered in coinilry districts. To meet the spiritual needs of this little ilock there are forty-three public churches, chapels, antl stations, be- sides twelve chai^els belonging to religious conmiunities. The number of priests (in 1910) is eighty-two, twenty- eight seculars and hft\-four regulars; more than half this numl^er of regulars is accounted for by the monas- tery of Breton Benedictines, at Caermaria, near Car-

Though it was never an archljishopric, it is far from clear when St. David's came definitely under the metropolitan jurisdiction of Canterbury. About 1115, however, Henry 1 intruded a Norman, Bernard (1 115- 1147), into the see. Bernard's rule was wise and vigorous; but on the death of Henry he claimed metropolitan jurisdiction over Wales, and presented his suit unsuccessfully before six successive popes. This claim was afterwards revived in the time of Giraldus Cambrensis (q. v.). Among the more fa-

digan, the convent of Franciscan Capuchins at Pant- mous bishops who held the see before the Reformation asaph, and St. Beuno's College, the theologate of the may be mentioned Peter de Lcia (1176-120.S), who be- English Jesuits. These religious, as well as Oblates of gan the building of the present cathedral of St. David's;

Mary Immaculate and Passionists, serve various mis- sions throughout the diocese. There are convents of nme congregations of nuns, the Sisters of the Holy Ghost (White Sisters) having no less than seven. The church of Our Lady of Dolours, Wrexham, serves

Henry Gower (1328-47) ; and Edward Vaughan (1509- 23), who made considerable additions to the same; the learned John Thorsby ( 1 347-50) afterwards transferred to the Archbishopric of York; Henry Chicheley (q. v.) (1408-14), afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury; and

as pro-cathedral; on 10 August, 1909, a cathedral the notorious William Barlow (1536-48), the so-called

chapter, consisting of a provost and four canons, was erected. The diocese is rich in relics of the Ages of Faith, thickly strewn as it is Avith churches once Cath- olic, but now used for Protestant wor- ship, and with ruins of ancient Catholic sanctuaries and holy wells named after the countless saints of the British Church; most famous of these is the holy well of St . Winefride (q. v.) at Holywell, which is and always has been Catholic hands.

East Cudir. 8t. David's CATHEonAL (formerly Catholic), St. David's, Walea

This miraculous well has been a centre of pilgrim- age from the earliest days of authentic Welsh his- tory, and the saint still attracts her votaries to the shrine, and dispenses her miraculous favours even in this unbelieving age. The beautiful building which stands over the well was erected towards the close of

the fifteenth century. The mission has been served that by favour of Callistus II, who canonized the saint, by the Society of Jesus since about 1600. St. Mary's two pilgrimages to St. David's were to be accounted College is a small episcopal college in the town, for the equal to one to Rome :-

consecrator of Arch- bishop Parker in 1559. The last Cath- olic bishop, Henry .Morgan (15.54-59), was, like the rest of the Catholic bishops, deprived of his see by I'dizabeth, but was ■iaved by death from ■iharing their impris- onment for theFaith. The oldest por- tions of thecathedral, dating from 1180, belong to the period of transition from the Early English to the Decorated style of architecture; the additions of Bishop Gower, including the beautiful stone rood screen, are excellent examples of the Decorated style, while to the north of the cathedral are the ruins of his magnificent episcopal palace. In 1862 a partial restoration of the cathedral was begun by Sir G. G. Scott. The shrine of St. David in the cathedral was a famous place of pilgrimage; it is said

education of boys to supply priests for the diocese; the Welsh language is a prominent feature in the curricu- lum. The Diocese of Menevia is the restoration of the ancient Catholic Diocese of St. David's, the founda- tion of which, in the latter half of the sixth century, is traditionally attributed to that saint. The con- tention of recent historians that there were no terri-

Meneviam pete bis, Roman adire si vis;

Merces sequa tibi redditur hie et ibi;

Roma semel, quantum dat bis Menevia, tantum (ancient lines found at the shrine by Archbishop Peck- ham, 1240-92).

Catholic Directory (1840-1850: 1895-1910); Foley, Rccordt of English Province S. /....IV (London, 1878), 528 (for Holy-

torial bishops in Wales at so early a date, but only well); Beva^, Diocesan Histories St- David's (London, 1888): monastic bishops without sees, is considered baseless ^TnrL-*Go%L"XV^s„EtS"/o/BW<?r^^^ by Dr. Zimmer, no parti.san authority. though 1908),285; GihalddsCambhensis, De Jurec(,S(a(uMen«iCT»«s monasticism was strong in it, it did not impart to the icWe^^JRoIU Serira)^j Zimmer in Realencykl. fur prot.Theol. (Welsh) Church either its character or its form" (Rfalfncyklopiidie, X, 224). The four independent \\(lsh sees were co-extensive with the four independ- ent principalities that had come into being during the sixth centurj'; Menevia with Dyfed, Llandaff with Gwent, St. Asaph with Powys, Bangor with GwTnedd.

d Kirche, s. vv. Keltische Kirche in Britannien und Jrland; Diet. Nat. Biog., s. v. Gower; Vaughan; Thoresby; Chicheley; Barlow.

Kbnelm Digby Beste.

Mengarini, Gregorio, pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe (q. v.) and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, 1811 ; d. at Santa Clara, Califor-

the records of the history of the diocese before Nor- nia, 23 September, 1886. He entered the Jesuit novi-

man times are very fragmentary, consisting of a few tiate in 1828, when barely seventeen, and later served

chance references in old chronicles, such as "Annales as instructor in grammar, for which his philological

Cambrife" and "Bruty Tywysogion" (Rolls Series), lient particularly fitted him, at Rome, Modena, and

Originally corresponding with the boundaries of Dy- Reggio. While studying at the Roman College in

fed (Demetia), St. David's eventually comprised all 1S39, a letter from Bishop Hosati of St. Louis, voicing

the country south of the River Dovey'and west of the the appeal of the Flatheads for missionary priests,

English border, with the exception of the greater part was read out in the refectory, and Mengarini was at