slave-holding states from the general body now ap- peared unavoidable, and a " Plan of Separation" was elaborated and accepted. The Southern delegates held a convention at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1845, at which the "Methodist Episcopal Church, South" was fonned. The new organization, after a period of progress, suffered heavily during the Civil War. Since tlien the relations between the Northern and Southern branches of Episcopal Methodism have assumed a very friendly character. There is a large measure of co-operation particularly in the foreign mission field. A joint commission on fetleration is in existence anti in May, 1910, it reconnnended the creation of a federal council (i. e., a joint court of last resort) to the general conference of the Meth- odist Episcopal Church, South.
i'.i) Methodism in Olher Countries. — (a) American. — The first apostle of Methodism in Newfoundland was Lawrence Cotighlan, who began his work there in 176.5. It wasonly in 1785, however, thatthecountryreceiveda regular preacher. The evangelization of Nova Scotia, where the first Methodists settled in 1771, was begun later (17S1), but was carried on more systematically. In the year 1786 a provincial conference was held at Halifax. In spite of their early relations with American Methodism, Newfoiuidland and the eastern provinces of Canada were after 1799 supplied with preachers from England, and came under English jurisdiction. In 1855 they were constituted a sepa- rate conference, the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America. The Provinces of On- tario and Quebec received Jlethodism at an early date from the I'nited States. Philip Embury and Barbara Heck moved to Montreal in 1774, and Wil- liam Losee was in 1790 appointed preacher to these provinces by the New York Conference. The War of 1812— 1 interrupted the work undertaken by the Methodist Episcopal Church in this section. The settlement of nmnerous English Methoilists in these provinces after the restoration of peace brought about difficulties respecting allegiance and jurisdic- tion between the English and American branches. The result was that the Methodist Episcopal Church organized its congregations into a separate conference in 1824, and two years later granted them complete independence. Immigration also brought members of the minor Methodist bodies to Canada: the Wes- leyan New Connexion, the Bible Christians, and the Primitive Methodists. But in 1874 the Wesleyan Methodist Church and the Wesleyan New Connexion comliined. The other separate bodies joined the union a little later (188.3-4), thus forming the "Meth- odist Church of Canada ' ', which includes all the white congregations of the Dominion. The "British Meth- odist Episcopal Church", which still maintains a separate existence, has only coloured membership. It was formerly a part of the African Methodist Epis- copal Church, and gained complete independence in 1864. Bermuda, where George Whitefield preached in 1748 and J. Stephenson appeared as first regular preacher in 1799, forms at present a district of the Methodist Church of Canada. South America was entered in 18.35, when the Rev. F. E. Pitts visited Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and other places, and organ- ized several societies. The special South American Conference was established in 1893, and supplemented in 1897 by the Western South American Mission Con- ference. Missionary work was inaugurated in Mexico in 1873 by William Butler.
fb) European. — Methodism was Introduced into France in 1790, but it has never succeeded in getting a strong foothold tliere. In 18.52 France was con- stituted a separate conference affiliated to British Methodism. In 1907 the American Church organized a mission there. From France .Methodism spread to Italy in 18.52. Some years later (1801) two mission- aries, Green and Piggot, were sent from England to
Florence and founded several stations in Northern Italy. The Methodist Episcopal Church started a missionary enterprise in Italy in 1871, bulr h;is never attained great success. The first Met Iick list missionary to Germany was (!. Miiller. He started his preaching in 1830 and gained some adherents mainly in Wiirtem- berg. Methodist missions are maintamed also in Switzerlanil, Scandinavia, Rus.sia, Bulgaria, Spain, and Portugal.
(c) Australasian, Asiatic and African. — Methodism lias had considerable success in Australasia. It ap- peared at an early date, not only on the Austral ian con- tinent but also in some of the South Sea Islands. The first class was formed in Sydney in 1812, anil the first missionarj' in the country was S. Leigh. Methodism spread to Tasmania in 1820, to Tonga in 1822, to New Zealand in 1823, and in 1835 Cargill and Cross began their evangelistic work in the Fiji Islands. In 1854 Australian Methodism was formed into an affiliated con- ference of England, and in 1876 became independent.
The foundation of the first Methodist missions in Asia (1814) was due to the initiative of Thomas Coke. Embarking on 30 December, 1813, at the head of a band of si.x missionaries, he died on the voyage, but the undertaking succeeded. The representatives of English Methodism were joined in 1856 by William Butler of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1847 this same Church sent J. D. Collins, M. C. White, and R. S. Maclay to China. Stations have also been founded in the Philippine Islands and in Japan, where the Methodist Church of Japan was organized inl907.
George Warren left England for Sierra Leone in 1811. The American Church entered the field in 1833. South Africa, where Methodism is particularly well repre- sented, was erected in 1882 into an affiliated confer- ence of the English Wesleyan Church.
IV. Other Methodist Bodie.s. — Seces.sions from the main bodies of Methodism followed almost im- mediately upon Wesley's death. The following orig- inated in England:
(1) The Methodist New Connexion was founded at Leeds in 1797 by Alexander Kilham (1762-98) ; hence its members are also known as " Kilhamites ". It was the first organized secession from the main body of English Methodism, and started its separate exist- ence with 5000 members. Its foundation was oc- casioned by the conference's refusal to grant laymen the extensive rights in church government claimed for them by Kilham. The sect never acquired any considerable importance.
(2) The Primitive Methodists, who met with greater success than the New Connexion, were organized in 1810. Camp-meetings had been introduced into England from America, but in 1807 the conference pronounced against them. Two local preachers, Hugh Bourne and William Clowes, disregarding this decision, publicly advocated the holding of such meetings and were expelletl. They then established this new body, characterized by the preponderating influence it grants laymen in church government, the admission of women to the pulpit, and great simplicity in ecclesiastical and private life. According to the " Methodist Year-book "( 19 10) it has 2 19,343 members.
The Irish Primitive Weslei/an Methodists must not be confounded with the "Primitive Methodists" just spoken of. The former were founded in 1816 by Adam Averell, and in 1878 again united with the Wesleyan Methodists.
(3) The Bible Christians, also called Bryaniles from the name of their founder William O'Bryan, were organized as a separate sect in Cornwall in 1816. Like the Primitive Methodists, they grant extensive influence in church affairs to laymen and liberty of preaching to women. Although they spread froin England to the colonies, their aggregate membership was never very large.
(4) The Wesleyan Rejorm Union grew out of the