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great Methodist disruption of 1S50-2, and numbers but 8489 members.

(5) The United Methodist Free Churches represent the combination of the Wesleyan Association, the Protestant Methodists, and a large quota of the seces- sion from the main Methodist body caused by the unpopularity of Dr. Bunting's rule. The Wesleyan Methodist Association was organized in 1836 by Dr. Samuel Warren, whose opposition to the foundation of a theological seminary resulted in his secession from the parent body. At an earlier date opposition to the installation of an organ in a church at Leeds ended in the formation of the "Protestant Metho- dists" (1828). These were the first to join the Wes- leyan Methodist Association, the opponents of Bunt- ing following in 1857.

(6) The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church is Meth- odist almost solely in name. As an evangelistic movement it chronologically preceded Methodism dating back to the preaching of Howell Harris and Daniel Rowlands in 1735-6; as an organization it was partly established in 1811 by Thomas Charles, and completed in 1S64 by the union of the Churches of North and South Wales and the holding of the first General Assembly. Whitefield's influence on Welsh Methodism was not of primary importance. In doc- trine the church is Calvinistic and in constitution largely Presbyterian. It is to-day frequently called the "Presbyterian Church of Wales".

In the United States, beside the Methodist Episco- pal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Primitive Methodists, which have been spoken of above, the following denominations exist : —

(1) llie McthodUt Protestant Church was founded on 2 November, 1830, at Baltimore by members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who had been expelled or had freely withdrawn from that body. The separa- tion was due to the refusal to extend the governmental rights of laymen. The Methodist Protestant Church has no bisluips. It divided in 1858 on the slavery question, Ijut the two branches reunited in 1877 (number of communicants, 188,122). This figure is given by Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, 27 January, New York, 1910), whose statistics we shall quote for all the Methodist bodies of the United States.

(2) The Wesleyan Methodist Connexion of America was organized in 1843 at Utica, New York, by advo- cates of a more radical attitude against slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church. It has neither episco- pate nor itinerancy, and debars members of secret societies (communicants, 19,485).

(3) The Congregational Methodist Church dates back to 1852; it sprang from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and is Methodist in doctrine and con- gregational in polity (membership, 15,529).

(4) The Free Methodist Church was organized in 18(in at I'i'kin, New York, as a protest against the allpi;eel abandonment of the ideals of ancient Metho- dism by the Methodist Episcopal Church. There are no bishops ; members of secret societies are excluded ; the use of tobacco and the wearing of rich apparel are prohibited (membership, 32,166).

(5) The Mew Congregational Methodists originated in Georgia in 1881 and in doctrine and organiza- tion closely resemble the Congregational Methodist Church (m'rnibcr^liip, 1782).

(()) The liidc/K 11,1- lit Methodists maintain no central government. licli congregation among them, en- joys supreme control over its affairs (communicants, 1161).

(7) The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, with which we begin the treatment of the following exclusively coloured denominations, may be traced back to the year 1796. Some coloured Methodists in New York organized themselves at that date into a separate congregation and built a church which they called "Zion". They remained for a time under the

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pastoral supervision of the Methotlist Episcopal Church, but in 1820 formed an independent Church differing but little from the parent body (communi- cants, 545,681).

(8) The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1813 at Wilmington, Delaware, had for its founder the coloured preacher, Peter Spencer (membership, 18,500).

(9) The African Methodist Episcopal Church has existed as an independent organization since 1816. Its foundation was due to a desire for more extensive privileges and greater freedom of action among a number of coloured Methodists of Philadelphia. It does not differ in important points from the Methodist Episcopal Church (membership, 452,126).

(10) The African Union Methodist Protestant Church also dates back to 1816; it rejects the episcopacy, itinerancy, and a paid ministry (membership, 4000).

(11) The Zion Union Apostolic Church was founded in Virginia in 1869. In its organization it closely re- sembles the Methodist Episcopal Church (communi- cants, 3059).

(12) The Coloured Methodist Episcopal Church is merely a branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized independently in 1870 for negroes (membership, 233,911).

(13) The Congregational Methodists, Coloured, differ only in race from the Congregational Methodists (communicants, 319).

(14) Tlie Evangelist Missionary Church was organ- ized in 18S6 in Ohio by members of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. It has no creed but the Bible, and inclines to the admission of only one person in God, that of Jesus Christ.

V. Educational and Social Activities. — The founders of Methodism had enjoyed the advantages of a university training, and must have realized the priceless value of education. The fact, however, that John Wesley laid almost exclusive stress on the practi- cal element in religion tended to make a deep and ex- tensive knowledge of doctrinal principles seem super- fluous. The extraordinary success of his preaching which urgently demanded ministers for the ever- increasing number of his followers, led to the appoint- ment, in the early history of Methodism, of preachers more commendable for their religious zeal than re- markable for their theological learning. Indeed, for a comparatively long period, the opposition of Metho- odists to schools of theology was pronounced. The establishment of the first institution of the kind in 1834 at Haxton, England, caused a split in the denom- ination. At the present day, however, the need of theological training is universally recognized and supplied by numerous schools. In i:ii!j,l,iiiil ilic chief in.stitutions are located at Ricluiioinl, hidsbury, Headingley, and Handsworth. American .Mclliodists founded their first theological school in 1841 at New- bury, Vermont. It was removed to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1847, and has formed since 1867 part of Boston University. Numerous other foimdations were subsequently added, among them Garrett Bibli- cal institute (1854) at Evanston, Illinois, and Drew 'riii<il.)._;i,:il Sc'rniii:iry (1867) at Madison, New Jersey. W liilr Miiliodi^ni has no parochial school system, its fir>t dc-iiimiinatiunal institution of learning dates back to 1740, when John Wesley took over a school at Kingswood. It was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, that a vigorous etluca- tional movement set in to continue up (o the present day. .\n idea of the efforts made in this ilireclion by Methodists niav I>e sained bv a rcfcrciii-e lo the statis- tics published 'in llw •■ Mnlindisl Hook" (1910), pp. 108-13. .\(r,,,diiiL; lo ilic Tr|i.iiis there given. Mil' M.■lllodi■^l f:(.i-ro|,:,l Cliiurl, :,l,,nc ((he other brinrl,,--- :,1-M ^,i|i|„,,1 llicii- srl„,ol^) n i.'i iii( [ilfis 197 cd'H ;,i h.n:il iii-i mil i.)iis, ineliidiiig .')(! ciillcgcs and uiii\ci>ilii-, 17 rl;;s,xical seminaries, S institutions ex-