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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/349

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and 1.1 one of the many tumults caused by this condi- tion of affairs Lrlembaldo was killed (1074). Under Anselm III order was re-established

Unfortunately, the pahiria had created an anti- clerical sentiment in the people, and had prepared them to accept the doctrines of Manicha>ism. In fact the tathari of Italy were more frequently called Pa- tan, and m Milan, one of their chief centres, they main- tained a kind of university. Archbishop Oberto was exiled by Barliarossa in 1162; and though his suc- cessor ^t. Galdino, was elected at Rome by the emi- grated Milanese, he was able to take possession of his f^ l'^- }*^'^' ^^^ reorganized the hospital del Broglio. Archbishop Uberto Crivelli became Pope Urban III in 11S5. At an archiepiscopal election in 1263 no agreement could be reached, for the people wanted Raimondo della Torre, and the nobles a member of the family of Settala; therefore Urban IV ap- pointed Ottone Visconti, who was prevented by the Milanese from taking possession of his see until 1277 when he entered Milan, both as archbishop and as lord' Roberto Visconti, who succeeded John in 1354 was obliged to enter into litigation with his brothers for the property of the Church, which they regarded as the personal property of their uncle. Among other arch- bishops of Milan were Pietro Filargo (1402), who be- came Alexander V; Fra Gabriele Sforza (i454), an Augustinian, brother of Duke Francesco and founder of the Ospcdalc Maggiore; and the cardinals Stefano Nardini (1461), Giovanni Arcimboldi (144S), Ippo- lito d'Este (1497), also the latter's nephew I'ppolito (1520). During the incumbency of this prelate, al- ways absent from his diocese, great abuses grew up which Giovanni Angelo Arcimboldo (1550) and St. Charles Borromeo (q. v.) sought to remedy (1561). Here it is enough to mention the latter's zeal for the reformation of morals, his earnestness in preserving the Ambrosian Rite and extending its use throughout the archdiocese (Monza alone retaining the Roman rite), and his foundation of the Oblates for diocesan missions. His work was continued by Gaspare Vis- conti (1584) and by a nephew of St. Charles, Federigo (1594-1631), who was a cardinal, as were all of his successors, to Filippo Visconti (1784-1801), whose nomination by Joseph II, made without the consent of the Holy See, nearly brought on a schism. He was followed by Cardinal Caprara, well-known as Apos- tolic legate to the court of Napoleon. After the death of this prelate in 1811 the See of Milan remained va- cant for six years; the next archbishop. Cardinal Carlo GaetanoGaisruck, was appointed in 1818, and governed the diocese until 1848 " more as a soldier than as a prelate ". He was especially opposed to the re-estab- lishment of the religious orders. Archbishop Paolo Angelo Ballerini (1859-67) was never able to take possession of his see, because the Italian Government denied him the exeqimtur; and his auxiliary bishop Dominioni was also persecuted.

Councils were held at Milan in 343 and 347, against Photinus; 355, in the cause of St. Athanasius, at which the Emperor Constans menaced the bishops; 390, against Jovinian; 451, against the Robber Council of Ephesus; 680, against the Monothelites; 1060, 1098, 1117, 1287, for ecclesiastical reforms. The diocesan synods of St. Charles Borromeo and of 1636 and of 1669 were also reform synods. Diocesan synods were held in 1609 and 1850 respectively. The suffra- gan bishops of Milan were wont to meet each year at R6; their sees are Bergamo, Brescia. Conio, Crema, Cremona, Lodi, Mantua, and Pavia. The archdiocese has 788 parishes, with 1,828,000 inhabitants, 27 reli- gious houses of men, and of women nearly 80 in the city and; it has 43 educa- tional establishments for boys an<l 176 for girls, 2 Catholic daily papers, and many important periodi- cals. In the Middle .^ges there was a monastery at Milan, St. Cosmas, for Armenian monks of the Rule of

St. Basil ; they depended , however, on a .similar monas- tery in Genoa, and had no relation with Armenia. Ihis order, which used the so-called Aquileian rite, was suppressed in 1650.

Religious Edifices.— The wonderful Italian Gothic cathedral is built of white marble, has five naves and is 48b feet m length; it is surmounted by 98 slen- der turrets, on the principal one of which is a bronze- gilt statue of the Madonna; there are, in all, 6000 statues, 2000 of which are on the exterior. The cathe- dral is situated on the site of the ancient basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (fourth or fifth century), and was begun in 1386 by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti. Xhe tomb of St. Charles is under the cupola. The treasury of the cathetlral contains, among other valu- able objects, two statues, of St. Charles and of St Ambrose, made of silver and set with precious stones the gift of the city. The high altar is a gift of Pius I v! 1 he church of St. .Ambrose, built by its patron saint in 386, and often restored, especially in the twelfth century, contains the tomb of the Emperor Louis II ; in the chapel of St. Satyrus is a mo.saic that dates, prob- ably, from the fifth century, while the central door, w-ith wood-carvings representing scenes from the life of David, IS held, on seemingly good grounds, to be of the time of St. Ambrose; the church possesses also a golden altar-front {palUoUo) of Angilbert (835). The monastery annexed to this church had a fine library and belonged at first to the Benedictines, later to the Cistercians ; it serves now as a military hospital. The church of St. Eustorgius contains the mausoleums of Stefano Visconti, Martino della Torre, and others. The church of St. Stefano Maggiore is of the fifth cen- tury; that of San Vittore al corpo is the Basilica Por- tiana, dating from before the time of St. it contains the body of the martyr St. Victor, and also valuable paintings. San Nazaro Maggiore (382?) has a vestibule by Bramante, and contains the tombs of the Trivulzio family. In the church of St. Aquilinus there is a beautiful mosaic and the sarcophagus of a lady of the family of the Emperor Theodosius. Santa Maria delle Grazie is a church in the style of the Renaissance (1465), with a cupola by Bramante ; it has valuable frescoes, beautiful carvings, and inlaid work in the choir; in the ancient monastery, which formerly belonged to the Dominicans, is the famous Last Sup- per of Leonartlo da Vinci. On the site of the principal hall of the baths of Maximian, the peristyles of which remain, is built the church of San Lorenzo, containing ancient mosaics. The church of San Marco (1254) has a, beautiful high altar, and valuable paintings; that of San Maurizio, said to have been built by Queen Theo- delinda, is covered with frescoes Ijy Luini between 1503 and 1509. San Satiro, a church that dates from 876, was restored by Bramante. There arc also the church of the Holy Sepulchre, and others.

Secular Edifice.?.— Among these are the Palazzo di Corte (1228), restored .several times; garden contains the Royal Villa (1790); the Broletto Nuovo, from 1228 to 1786 the palace of the commune; the Palazzo della Ragione (1233) ; the Broletto (1413-24), at present containing public offices; the Collegio Elvetico, founded by St. Charles Borromeo, and now the seat of the Court of Assizes ; the ^'ittorio Enianuele gallery and the Castello Sforzesco.

Schools, etc. — There are two episcopal seminaries, and the Lombard Seminary for foreign missions; the .Academy of Sciences and Letters ; the Technical In- stitute ; the Superior Institute of Commerce ; 3 royal and 6private gymnasia; many other.schools, 17 of which are under religious direction; the Verdi Conservatory of Music; the Lombard Institute for SrieMci-s;ind Let- ters; the Royal I'iiu.coli'ca dclhi Hicia, fomicily a Jesuit college, rich in piiinlings of the old Lonibiird school, and possessing a vajualfle numismatic collec- tion. In the Castello Sforzesco is a museum of ancient and medie\al art, while many of the private