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MILDE


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MILES


palaces, such as those of the Rorromeos and of the Trivulzios, contain valuable collections of paintings. The National Library in the Brera (1770) and tiie Ambrosian Library are famous. The latter was founded by Cardinal I'ederigo Borronieo (1600) and contains 200,01)0 volumes, besides 8:M0 manuscripts, 126 of which are illuminated with miniatures. The State and the municipal archives are important; so, also, in their sphere, are the astronomical and the meteorological ol>servatories. Milan has 14 theatres, of which till' Soala is world-famous. There are 17 hospitals and .'> iiolyclinics, also asylums for the in.sane, the blind, the ilcai-nuile, etc. There are nearly 5000 industrial establishments, with 150,000 workmen; the textile, typograpliic. and pharmaceutic industries are especially well represented.

Cappelletti, Le C/nrxc d'llalia. XI (Venice, 1856); Eusta- CHIUS A. S. Ubaldo, Dc mctropoH Mediolanensi (Milan, 1699); histories of Milan hv Rosmini (4 vols., Milan, 1820); CANTtr. (2 vols., 1855); Bonfadini Gianeti (4 vols., 1883-1904); Ady, Milan under the Sforza (London, 1907); S-\xius, Archiepis- coporum M ediotanensium series (Milan, 1755); the periodical Aiilano Bcncfica (1905 sqq.).

U. Benigni.

Milde, ViNZENZ Eduard, Prince-Archbishop of Vienna, b. at Briinn, in Moravia, in 1777; d. at Vienna in 1853. The admirable monument erected to him in the left wing of St. Catharine's chapel in the cathe- dral of St. Stephen in Vienna portrays a catechist bending over two children, inscribed "Charity", to the left, a priest in the act of elevating the Blessed Sacrament, attended by a young priest and a clerk, in- scribed " and Prayer ". Under these two inscriptions, and extending across the whole length of the monu- ment are the words "link together the inhabitants of this world and those of the next". The monument thus bears witness to Milde's distinction as a catechist and as the founder of a seminary for priests and teachers. Towards the close of his preparatory studies, Milde felt called to the ecclesiastical state which his stepfather was very much opposed to his entering. His mother favoured his purpose, however, and poor and without acquaintances, he entered the " Alumnat " or little seminary at Vienna in 1704. Here he formed

IP intimate friendship with Vinzenz Darnaut, the uture professor of church history, and with Jakob Frint, later Bishop of St. Polten. The three distin- guished men were again united as court chaplains, and remained firm friends for the remainder of their lives. Meanwhile, Milde became catechist in the Normal High School and successor of the famous Augustin Gruber, and occupied also the chair of pedagogics at the university. Later, as court chap- lain at Schonbrunn, Milde spoke so comfortingly to the Emperor Francis I, inconsolable after a battle lost to Napoleon, that the emperor replied: "I shall never forget this hour, dear Milde. " Not content with words, the emperor named Milde Bishop of Leitmeritz in 1S23, and in 1831 Prince-Archbishop of Vienna, Milde being the first archbishop named from the ranks of the people to this see, which had hitherto been always occupied by a nobleman. His farewell ad- dress is thoroughly characteristic: "The bond of the sacred ministry is broken, but the bond of the heart will never be severed. Those whom I have loved, I shall love to the end, and, though separated from you, I shall remain united with you in charity and prayer. Pray our heavenly father not that I may live long, but that I may live for the salvation of the faithful and for my own salvation." Milde thus greeted the people of Vienna: "Not only do I wish to be united with you in the bonds of the sacred ministry, but I wish to be united with you in the bonds of charity. Not for myself, but for you do I wish to live." He kept the promise which he made to his flock, and was to them a solicitous and loving father.

Nevertheless, the year of the Revolution (1848) brought him his bitterest enmities and his most severe


illnesses. He was between two fires. On 13 March the storm broke, and four days later he warned hia clergy, in a circular letter, not to overstep the bounds of their calling: "Priests are not intemled to advise regarding the earthly affairs of men, nor to regulate them, but should only concern themselves with in- terior matters pertaining to the salvation of souls." But the revolution soon menaced the archbishop. Mock serenades were held repeatedly outside his palace and its windows were broken. On the other hand, a portion of the clergy clamoured that he should be declared incapable of man.aging the affairs of the diocese and expressed the hope of lieing led to victory by a stronger personality. A deputation of the clergy representetl tliis to Milde, who complied as far as possible by retiring to his castle of Kranichberg. When the draft of the fvuidamoiital laws of the Aus- trian constitution was discussed by the assembly of the States of the Empire at Kremsier, the archbisliop drew up an address to the assembly: "The under- signed bishops declare solemnly that they, as true citi- zens, promote the welfare and hold sacred the rights of the state, but it is the duty of their office and of their conscience to look after the freedom and the rights of the Catholic Church, to oppose encroachment and restriction on the part, of the state, and to beg for that support which would promote the true interests of the state and the successful activity of the Church." At the great assembly of bishops in Vienna (1849), Milde was chosen one of a committee of five to continue the negotiations with the state. When finally in 1850 the imperial tlecisions were promul- gated, which at first dealt a blow to the existing Josephist system, Milde published a pastoral for the purpose of stilling the tumidt : "The uneasiness is in- deed in great part the result of misunderstanding, but often also the result of malicious misrepresenta- tion, since, through some newspapers and through speeches made by certain men inimical to the Church, the words of the august decree were distorted, and erroneous representations spread abroad." The words of Milde in " My last will " are strikingly beauti- ful. " Hope softens the separation. Those who did me evil I do not think wicked, but gladly persuade my.self that I by my sensitiveness have in many cases been more deeply wounded than the occasion war- ranted. During the last years 1 have had to bear many bitter misunderstandings and shameful calum- nies. I have kept silence through it all, not through apathy, but partly that the malice might not be excited further, and partly in imitation of my Re- deemer."

Milde's "Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Erziehungs- kunde" is famous, and even yet much used (Vol. I: Von der Kultur der physischen und der intellectuellen Anlagen; Vol.11: Von der Kultur des Gefiihls- und des Begehrungsvermogens, Vienna, 1811-13, 3rd ed., 1843). A compendium of the Erziehung.skunde was published in 1821. J. Ginzel edited Milde's "Reli- quien" (2nd ed., Vienna, 1859), which contained various discourses and addresses which he delivered as bishop and archbishop.

Brunner, Denk Pfenniqe zur Erinnerung an Personen, Zu- stande und Erlebnisse vor, in und nach dem Explosionsjahre 18Jt8 (Vienna and Wiirzljure. 18S6); Ginzel, Reliquien von Milde (2nd ed., Vienna. I s.'n i : Tiuhnwald. Milde als Padagoge, with portrait of Mil'! (\irnrii. 1S77); Wolfsgruber, Die A", u. k. Hofburgkapelle tnni ,/,, >,, ^. ll,rl,r Hofkapelle (Vienna, 1904); "SVoTKE. Vimenz Ediwr,! M ihir nh Padagoge und sein VerhnUnis zu den geistigen Strimiungen seiner Zeit (Vienna. 1902); WnRZ- B\CH, Biogr. Lexikondes Kaisertums Oesterreich,Xy III (Vienna, 1868), 301-8.

C. WOLFSGRUBEK.

Miles, George Henry, dramatist and man of let- ters, b. in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; d. near Emmitsburg, 23 July, 1S71. He graduated from Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, in 1842, and then took up the study of law, commencing to prac- tise later in his native city. But the profession of