dialects, of which that of tlip north-western plains sec- tion may bo considerctl a ilistinct language. AF- thoiigh no missions were established in the territory of the iliwok, large numbers of them were liroiight into San Juan Bautista, Santa Clara, and San Jos6.
5. Costanoan Siock. — The territory of this linguis- tic group extended from the coast inland to the San Joaiiuin River, and from San Francisco and Suisim Bays on the north southwards to about the line of Point Sur, including the seven missions of San Fran- cisco (Dolores), San Jos(5, Santa Clara, .'^anta Cruz, San Juan Bautista, San Carlos, and .'^oledail. Although there was no true tribal organization, a number of divisional names are recognized, probalily correspond- ing approximately to dialectic distinctions. On the peninsula, and later gathered into San I'rancisco mis- sion were the Romonan (at present San Francisco), Ahwaste, .\ltahmo. Tulomo, and Olhone, or Costano proper, all apparently of one language in different dia- lects. The Saclan, about Oakland, were in the same mission. The Karkin along Carquinez straits and the Polye further south were gathered into San Jos6. Santa Clara had two native dialects, while Santa Cruz apparently had another, .\bout San Juan Bautista was spoken the Mutsun dialect, known through a grammar and phrase book written by the resident missionary. Father Arroyo de la Cuesta, in LSlo, and published in Shea's "American Linguistics" in 1861. Eastward were the Ansaima and about the mouth of the Salinas were the Kalindanik. At San Carlos the principal band was the Runsen, of which a renmant still exists, and at Soledad were Chalone, besides others of Es.selen, Salinan, and Yokuts lineage.
6. Esselen Stock. — The Esselen, or Ecclemach, con- stituting a distinct stock in themselves, occupied a small territory on Carmel and Sur rivers, south of Monterey Bay, until gathered into San Carlos, and per- haps into Soledad mission.
7. Salinan Stock. — This stock centred upon the waters of the Salinas, chiefly in Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, from the seacoast to the Coast Range divide, and from the head streams of the Salinas down (north) nearly to Soledad. San .\ntonio and San Miguel missions were within thoir (ciritory. Nothing definite is known of their di\i-inii^, rvcept- ing that there seem to have been at lra~i ilmc prin- cipal dialects or languages, viz., of .Sui .\lig\iel, of .'^an Antonio, and of the Playanos, or coast people. Be- sides those native to the region, there were also Yokuts from the east and Chumash from the south in the same missions.
8. y^okuts, or Mariposan, Stock. — The Indians of this stock had true tribal divisions, numbering about forty tribes, and holding a compact territory from the Coast Range divide to the foothills of the Sierras, including the upper San Joaquin, Kings River. Tulare Lake, and most of Kern River, besides a detached tribe, the Cho- lovone, about the present Stockton. Together with the Miwok and eastern Costanoan tribes, they were known to the Spaniards under the collective name of Tularenos, from their habitat about Tulare lake and along San Joaquin River, formerly Rio de los Tulares. Their numerous dialects varied but slightly, and may have been all mutually intelligible, the principal dif- ference being between those of the river plains and of the Sierra foothills. Although outside of the mission territory proper, the Yokuts area was a principal re- cruiting ground for the missions in the later period, hundreds of Indians, and even whole tribes, being carried off, either a.s neophyte subjects or as military prisoners of war, to San Jos^, San Juan Bautista, Sole- dad, San Antonio, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo (?), and probably other neighbouring missions. One Spanish expedition, about 1S20, carried off three hun- dred men, women, and children from a single rancheria to San Juan Bautista, where their language was after- wards recorded by Father La Cuesta. " The Tachi and
Telamni from Tulare lake and eastward were brought into San .\ntonio. X few are now gathered upon Tule River reservation, while a few others still re- main in their old homes.
9. Ckumaxlian Stock. — The Indians of this stock held approximately the territory from San Luis Obispo Bay south to Point Mugu, including the Santa Maria, Santa InC-s, and Santa Clara Rivers, the adjacent east- em slope of the Coast Range divide and tlie islands of Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, ami San Miguel. The mis- sions San Luis Obispo, Purisima, Santa In(Ss, Santa Barbara, and San Buenaventura were all within this area. They seem to have been represented also at San Miguel. There were at least seven dialects, viz., at each mission, on Santa Cruz, and on Santa Rosa. That of San Luis Obispo was sufficiently distinct to be considered a language by itself.
10. Shoslionean Stock. — This is the first stock within the mission area which extended beyond the limits of California, the cognate tribes within the state being an outpost of the same great linguistic group which in- cluiles the Piute, Ute, Comanche, and Pima of the United States, the Yaqui, Tarumari, and famous Az- tec of Mexico. The five missions of San Fernando, San Gabriel, San Juan Capistrano, San Luis Rey, and its branch mission of San Antonio de Pala, were all in Shoslionean territory, and the great majority of the Mission Indians of to-day are of this stock. Those within the mission sphere were of five languages, each with minor dialectic differences, nearly equivalent to as many tribes, as follows: — (a) Gabrielino: from about Santa Monica southward nearly to San Juan Capistrano, and from the coast liack to the foothills of the San Bernardino range, together with Santa Cata- lina island. It was spoken in slightly different dia- lects at San Fernando (Fernandeno) and San Gabriel. The names Kij, Kizh, and Tobikharhave been used to designate the same group, (b) Luiseno: from the Gabrielino borderabout .\lisos creek southwards along the coast to the Yuman frontier beyond Escondido, including lower San Luis Rey River, Temecula, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, and probably the islands of San Nicolas and San Clemen te. Spoken in slightly diiTer- ent dialects at missions of San Luis Rey (Luiseno, Kechi) and San Juan Capistrano (Juaneiio, Gaitchim, Netela, .Acagchemem) . (c) Panakhil, or Agua Ca- liente, occupied a limited territory on the heads of San Luis Rey River, and now at Pala and Los Coyotes re- serves, (d) Cahuilla, or Kawia: the eastern slopes of the San Jacinto Range from about Salton northwards to Banning, together with the head waters of Santa Mar- garita River. First visited by Father Francisco Oar- ers in 1776. (e) Serrano: in San Bernardino moun- tains and valley on Mohave River and northwards to Tejon and Paso Creeks of San Joaquin Valley; the Beneme of Father Garcgs in 1776 and the Takhtam of Gatschet. Some of them were gathered into San Ga- briel. Three dialects.
11. Yuman Stock. — This stock also has its main home beyond the eastern boundaries of the state, and includes the Mohave, Walapai, and others. San Diego mission was within its territory, as also the two short-lived missions on the Colorado. Nearly all the present Mission Indians not of Shoshonean stock are Yuman. Those within the mission sphere were of two languages, viz., Yuma in the east, about the junc- tion of the Gila and Colorado rivers; and Diegueno in the west, in two main dialect groups: (a) Diegueno proper, along the coast, including San Diego, and (b) Comeya, farther inland.
Very little is in print concerning the languages of the mission territory. For vocabularies and grammatic analysis the reader may consult Bancroft's volume on "Myths and Languages", Power's "Tribes of Cali- fornia", Gatschet in "Wheeler's Rept.", and above all, Barrett and Kroeber in the ITniversity of Califor- nia publications (see bibliography), with other works