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station. In 1722 the mission of Guadalupe was estab- lished at Bahia, on Lavaca (Matagorda) Bay among the Kaninkawa. Nine years later it was moved to the Cluadaliijie River. In 1752 the C-andelaria mission was attacked liy the Coco, a Karaiikawa hand, and Father .lose (iaazabal killed. In 17.')7 the mission of San 8ab;i was establisheil l)y Katlier .\lonso Terreros for the conversion of the wild and nomadic Lipan Apache, but they refused to settle in it; the following year the trilies destroyed the mission, killing Father Terreros and two other priests. Another attempted Lipan mission, in 1761, was broken up in 1769 by the Comanche. .\t this period the Texas missions had reached their liighest point, with an Indian population of about 15.000. In 1760 Father Bartolom^ Oarci'a published his religious manual for the use of the San Antonio missions, which remains almost our only linguistic monimient of the Pakawd tribes of central Texas. In 1791 another mission was established among the Karankawa.

Although constantly hampered by the Spanish authorities, the missions continued to exist until 1812, when they were suppressed by the revolutionary Gov- ernment, and the Indians scattered (see Pakawa In-


VIII. New Mexico and Arizona. — The earliest exploration in this territory was made by the Fran- ciscan Marco de Niza (Marcos of Nizza) in 1539, and the first missions were undertaken in 1542 by the Franciscans who accompanied Coronado. (For the missions among the Pueblo and Hopi see Pueblo Indians.) The most important event in this connexion is the great Pueblo revolt of 1680 in which twenty-one missionaries and some 400 others were massacred.

The missions among the Pima and Papajo of Ari- zona are of later foundation, beginning about 1732, and originated with the .Jesuits, with whom they con- tinued until the expulsion of the order in 1767, when they were taken over by the Franciscans (see Papajo Indian.s; Pim.\ Indi.\ns).

Attempts to evangelize the powerful tribe of the Navajo in northern Arizona and New Mexico were made by the Franciscans as early as 1746, but without result. Lately the work has been again taken up suc- cessfully by German Franciscans. To their scholar- ship and scientific interest we owe also a monumental " Ethnological Dictionary of the Navaho Language ". (See Navajo Indian.s.) Secular mission work is also now conducted in the Mescalero tribe of about 450 souls at Tularosa, New Mexico.

IX. The Columbia Region. — The first knowledge of Christianity among the tribes of this region came through the Catholic Iroquois and Canadian French employees of the Hudson Bay Company, by whose in- fluence and teaching many of the Indians, particularly among the Flatheads and Nez Percys, were induced to embrace the principles and practices of Catholicism as early as 1820, leading some years later to a request for missionaries, in response to which the Flathead mission in Montana was foun<led by the Jesuit Father Peter de Smet in 1841, followed .shortly afterwards by another among the Coeur d' Ah'ne in Idaho, established by the Jesuit Father Nicholas Point. In 1839 Father FrancLs Blanchet , .secular, who had come out to attend the Canadian residents, establLshed St. Francis Xavier mission on the Cowlitz, in western Washington, and another on the lower Willamet at Champoeg, Oregon, while about the same time Father J. B. Bolduc began work among the t ribes on Puget Sound. In 1844 three Jesuit missions were established among the Pend d'Oreilles and f'olvilles of the tapper Columbia, besides three others the British line. In 1S47 the Oblates arrived, and missions were established by Father Pandosy among the Yakima anrl by Father Ricard near the present Olympia. In 1848 the secu- lar Fathers Rousseau and .Mespl<?e founded a station fimong the Wasco, at the DaUes of the Columbia, in

Oregon. Work was also attempted among the degen- erate C!hinooks, with little result. The noted Oblate missionary, Iather Casimir (Ihirousc (d. 1892), best known for his later work at Tulalip, reached Oregon in 1847 and began his labovu-s among the tribes of I'uget Soimd and the lower Columbia aliout the .same jicriod.

With the exception of the Wasco and llie Chiuooks, these missions or their successors sire still in successful operation, numbering among their adherents the majority of the Christian Indians of Washington and southern Idaho. To Fathers Saintonge and Pandosy we are indebted for important contributions to Yak- ima linguistics. (See Chinooks; Kalispel Indians; KuTENAi Indians; Lake Indians; Lummi Indians; PuYALLUP Indians; Spokan Indians; Tulalip Indi- ans; Y.\KiM.\ Indians.)

Besides these there are Jesuit missions of more recent estalilishment among the Nez Percys of Idaho; and among the I'matilla, Klamath, Warmspring, and Siletz Indians in (Oregon, besides another among the remnant tribes of Grand Ronde reser\'ation, Oregon, served by a priest of the Society of the Divine Saviour. (See Siletz Indians; Um.vtilla Indians; Warm- spring Indians; Yamhill Indi.vns.)

X. California. — For the mission history see Cali- fornia; and Mission Indians.

For a statement of the present organization of Indian mission work and the sources and methods of financial support-, see article Indian Missions, Bu- reau OP Catholic.

XI. The Missionary Martyhs. — The following in- complete and tentative list of missionaries who died by violence or other untimely death in direct connexion with their work will show that even Ijefore the estab- lishment of the republic the soil of the United States iiad been baptized in the blood of Catholic missionaries from ocean to ocean. A few other names are included for special reasons. Those who perislied with the ex- ploring expedit ions under Narvaez, De Soto, and others are not noted.

1542 Padilla, Juan de, Fr.anciscan, killed inKansas(?). Escalona, Brother Luis de, Franciscan, killed by

Pecos, New Mexico. La Cruz, Juan de, Franciscan, killed by Tigua, New Mexico. 1549 Cancer, Luis, Dominican, killed by Calusa, Flor- ida. Tolosa, Diego de, Dominican, killed by Calusa,

Florida. Fuentes, Brother, killed by Calusa, Florida. 1566 Martinez, Pedro, Jesuit, killed by Yamasee,

Georgia. 1569(?) Bdez, Brother Dom. Agustin, Jesuit, died of

fever, with Yamasee, Florida. 1571 Segura, Juan Bautista Quiros, Luis de Gomez, Brother Gabriel (novice) 1571 Zerallos, Brother Sancho de (novice) Solis, Brother M^ndez, Brother Redondo, Brother Linares, Brother 1581 Lopez, Francisco, Franciscan, killed at Tigua, New Mexico. Santa Maria, Juan de ) Franciscans, killed at Rodriguez (or Ruiz), >■ Tigera, New Mex- Brother .\gustfn ) ico.

1597 Corpa, Pedro de Rodriguez, Bias Aufion, Miguel de Velasco, Francisco de Bad.ajoz, Brother An- tonio

1613 Du Thet, Brother Gilbert, Jesuit, killed by the English, Maine.

Jesuits, killed by Powhatan, Vir- ginia.

Franciscans, killed by Yamasee, Georgia and Florida.