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San Ildefonso Pueb- " lo, New Mexico.

1631 Miranda de Avila, Pedro, Franciscan, killed by

Taos, New Mexico.

1632 Letrado, Francisco / Franciscans, killed by Ars'ide, Martin de, f " Zipias ", New Mexico.

1633 Porras, Francisco, Franciscan, poisoned by

Hopi, Arizona. 1642 Goiipil, Rene (novice), Jesuit, killed by Mohawks,

New York. 1644 Bressani, Joseph, Jesuit, tortured by Mohawks,

but rescued. New York. 1646 Jogues, Isaac, Jesuit, killed by Mohawks, New

York. 1653 Poncet, Joseph, Jesuit, tortured by Mohawks,

but rescued, New York. 1657 Eight Franciscans drowned, en route Florida

missions to Havana. 1661 Menard, Rene, Jesuit, lost, supposed killed by

Sioux, Wisconsin. 1675 "Several missionaries", Franciscans (record in- complete), killed by Pueblos, New Mexico. 1675 Marquette, Jacques, Jesuit, died in woods, Mich- igan. 1680 La Ribourde, Gabriel de. Recollect, killed by

Kickapoos, Illinois. 1680 Twenty-two Franciscans killed in general massa- cre by revolted Pueblos, New Mexico, and Arizona, viz.: Talaban, Juan -i

Lorenzana, Francisco Anto- Santo Domingo nio de L Pueblo, New

Montes de Oca, (Juan?) Mexico.

Jos6 de J

Pio, Juan Bautista de, Tesuque Pueblo, New

Mexico. Torres, Tomas, Nambe Pueblo, New Mexico. Morales, Luis de Pro, Antonio Sdnchez de Baeza, Luis de Rendon, Matias de, Picuris Pueblo, New Mexico. Mora, Antonio j. ^^^^ p^^,,i^ ^^^ j^j^^; Pedrosa, Juan de )

Maldonado, Lucas, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico. Bal, Juan de, Alona (Zuiii) Pueblo, New Mexico. Figueras, Jos6 de T

Trujillo, Jose I Hopi Pueblos, Ari-

Espeleta, Jos6 de f zona.

Santa Maria, .\gustin de J Bemal, Juan {custos) } Galisteo (Tano) Pueb- Vera, Juan Domingo de f lo. New Mexico. Velasco, Francisco (Fernando?), de, Pecos Pueb- lo, New Mexico. Tinoco, Manuel, San Marcos Pueblo, New Mex- ico. Jesus, Simon (Juan?) de, Jemes Pueblo, New Mexico. 1683 (circa) Beltran, Manuel, Franciscan, killed by

Tanos(?), New Mexico. 1687 Membr^, Zenobius, Recol- ~] lect, Le Clercq, Maximus, Re- !■ killed by Karan- collect, kawa(?), Texas.

Chefdeville, , Sulpician, J

1696 , , Franciscan, by Ais(?) (Tororo),

killed Florida. 1696 Arbizu, Jose de }_ Franciscan, killed by Taos, Carbonel, Antonio \ New Mexico. Corvera, Francisco ) Franciscans, killed by Te- Moreno, Antonio f hua. New Mexico. Oasafies, Francisco, Franciscan, killed by Jemes, New Mexico. 1702 Foucault. Nichola,s, Sem. For. Missions, killed,

by Koroa, Mississippi. 1704 Parga, Juan de ~j Franciscans, tortured

Mendoza, Manuel de I and killed by English Delgado, Marcos I and Indian allies,

Miranda, Angel J Florida,

1706 Delhalle, Nicholas, B.C., Recollect (parish priest,

Detroit), killed by Ottawa, Michigan. St-Cosme, Jean-Frangois de, Sem. For. Missions,

killed by Shetimasha, Louisiana. 1708 Gravier, Jacques, Jesuit, died of wound inflicted

by Illinois (1705), Illinois. 1715 (circa) Vatier, Leonard, Recollect, killed by

Foxes, Wisconsin. 1718 Mantesdoca (Mantes de Oca), Brother Luis de,

Franciscan, killed in prairie fire, Texas.

1720 (circa) Mingiies, Juan, Franciscan, killed in mas-

sacre by Missouri, Missouri (?).

1721 Pita, Brother Jos6, Franciscan, killed in mas-

sacre by Lipan, Texas. 1724 Rasle (Rasles Rale), Sebastien, Jesuit, killed by English and Indian allies, Maine.

1729 du Poisson, Paul, Jesuit, killed by Natches,

Mississippi. Souel, Jean, Jesuit, killed by Yazoo, Mississippi.

1730 Gaston, , Sem. For. Missions, killed by Illinois,

Illinois. 1736 Senat, Antoninus, Jesuit, tortured and burned with whole party by Chickasaw, Mississippi. Aulneau (.\maud), Jean-Pierre, Jesuit, killed with twenty others in ma.ssacre by Sioux, on Massacre Island, Lake of Woods, about two miles beyond the Minnesota-Canada line. 1752 Ganzabal, Jos^ Francisco, Franciscan, held by Coco (Karankawa), Texas.

1758 (cf'rea) Silva, , Franciscan, killed by mission

Indians, Texas.

Terreros, Alonso G. de,'1 killed in massacre at

Franciscan, I San Sabd, by mis-

Santiesteban, Jos^, f sion Indians, Texas.

Franciscan. J

1775 Jayme, Luis, Franciscan, killed by Diegueiio,

California. 1780 Diaz, Juan 1

Morena, Matias I Franciscans, killed by Garces, Francisco f Yuma, California. Barraneche, Juan J 1812 Quintana, Andres, Franciscan, killed by Mis- sion Indians, California.

1833 Diaz, , killed by Caddo(?), Texas.

Bancroft, histories, California, Oregon, Washington, New Mexico, Arizona, etc. (San Francisco, 1886-90); Barcia. Ensayo Cronohigico (Madrid, 1723) ; Bureau Cath. Ind. Missions, annual reports (Washington) ; Jesuit Relations, ed. Thwaites (73 vols., Cleveland, 1896-1901); Morioe, Catholic Church in Western Canada (2 vols., Montreal, 1910) ; Parkman, Jesuits in North America (Boston. 1867) ; Idem, Pioneers of France (Boston, 1883); Shea. Catholic Missions (New York, 18S5) ; Idem, Catholic Church in Colonial Days (New York, 18S6) ; also authorities under cross- referenced articles.

James Mooney.

Missions, Catholic — This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, made, for the most part-, among Catholics, to instruct them more fully in the truths of their religion, to convert sinners, rouse the torpid and indifferent, and lift the good to a still higher plane of spiritual effort. To distinguish them from those mis- sions which represent the apostolic activity of the Church among pagans and heretics, these home mis- sions are known in some communities of English-speak- ing Catholics as " parochial missions " . Such missions usually consist of a systematic course of preaching and instruction, extending over a stated number of days, perfonned by authorized missionaries. The pi-esent article treats of: I. The Necessity and Ctility of Popular MisMoiis: II. Origin and History; HI. Method.

I. Ni. issMv wdUtilitv. — From the above defini- tion it i> (■\ idcni I hat the primary object of a |)opular mission is not the making of converts to the Faith. However, owing to the familiar relations between Catholics and non-Catholics in the llnited States, this is so common a result that it may be regarded as nor- mally a part of the wppkin that country, and. beginning from the last decade of the nineteenth century, ac\