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physica with the freedom of the will a "mystery", it would seem that man is not capable of solving the problem of the harmony between grace and free will. Another phase in the development of this system is the fact that, in the course of time, some of the Molin- ists have made concessions to the Thomists in the question regarding predestination, without however abandoning the essentials of Molinism. The theory of the prcemotio physica agrees admirably with the idea of an absolute predestination to glory irrespective of foreseen merits (prcedestinalio ante prcsvisa merila). This is the reason why this theory appears, except in the case of a few theologians, as a characteristic feat- ure of the Thomistic doctrine on grace. Now, abso- lute predestination to glory necessarily involves the rather harsh doctrine of reprobation, which, though only negative, is nevertheless equally absolute. For, if God determines to bestow efficacious graces only upon those whom He has from all eternity predestined to glory, then those not contained in his decree of pre- destination are a priori and necessarily damned.

Some leading Molinists like Bellarmine and Suarez may possibly have been tempted to show the practical possibility of reconciling Molinism with the eternal and unchangeable decree of predestination by siding with the Thomists in this question of secondary con- sideration, without, however, sacrificing their alle- giance to the scientia media. But the majority of Molina's followers, under the lead of Lessius and Vasquez, most consistently held to the opposite view. For they admitted only a conditioned predestination to glory which becomes absolute only consequent upon the foreseen merits of man (prwdestinatio post — et propter — pnpfisa merila), and roundly condemned negative reprobation on the ground that it not only limited but even ran counter to the salvific will of God. To-day there is scarcely a convinced Molinist who docs not take alone this reasonable standpoint. A modification of Molinism of minor importance arose with regard to the so-called predefinition of good works (prcedefinitio bonorum operum). By predefini- tion, in contradistinction to predestination to glory, theologians understand the absolute, positive, and efficacious decree of God from all eternity, that cer- tain persons shall at some time in the future perform certain good works (cf. Franzehn, "De Deo Uno", Rome, 1883, pp. 444 sqq.). This predefinition to good works is either formal or virtual, according as God's decree governing these works and the bestowal of efficacious grace is either formal or merely virtual: Molina, Vasquez, and Gregory de Valentia defended virtual, while Suarez, Tanner, Silvester Maurus, and others upheld formal predefinition. (See Congruism; Grace, Controvebsibs on.)

Werneb, Thonms von Aguin, III CRatisbon, 1859), 380 sqq.; Idem, Franz Suarez u. die Scholastik der letzten Jakrk., I (Vienna, 1861), 244 sqq.; Schneeman, S.J., Controversiarum de dinnce gratia: liherique arhitrii concordia iniiia et progressus (Freiburg, 1881); DE Regnon. S.J., Bannes et Molina. Histoire, Doctrines, Critique 7netaphi/sique (Paris, 1883) ; Pesch. S. J., Ein Domimkaner- bischof [Di'iaeus Deza] als Molinist voT Molina in Zeitschr. /fir kath. Theol. (Innsbruck, 1885). 171 sqq.; Reusch, Index der ter- bolrnen Bucher. II (Bonn, 1885), 298 sqq.; Dollinger-Reosch, Bellarmins SeUjatbiographie (Munich, 1887); Schwane, Dogmen- gesch., IV (Frdiburg, 1890); Gavbaud, Thomisme el Mahnisme (Paris. 1890); Ude, Doctrina Capreoli de influxu Dei in actus vo- luntatis humance secundum principia Thomismi et Molinismi (Graz, 1905); Paguier, Le Jansenisme, i (Paris. 1909); Morgott in Kirchenlez., a. v. Molina. — Concerning the concursus ditinua see SoAREZ, Opusc. de concursu, motione et auxilio Dei (new ed., Paris, 1856); Jeiler. O.S.F., S. Bonanentura principia de cot^ cursu Dei generali ad actiones causarum secundarum collecta et S. Thoma doctrina confirmala (Quaracchi. 1897). Consult also text- books on natural theology (Hontheim. GnTBERLET, Lehmen, etc.) and on dogma. — Concerning the scientia media see Herice. De scientia Dei (Pampil, 1623) ; Bobdll, S.J., Divina mmtia fu- turorum canting entium, prtecipue media (Lyons, 1650); I I.ATEL, S.J., Auctoritas contra prmdeterminationem physicam pro scientia media (Douai, 1669; 2nd ed., 1673); Henao, S.J., Sctentia media hislorice proptignata (Lyons, 1655; Salamanca, 1665) ; Jo?". i>cien- tia media Iheolagice defensa (2 vols., Lyons, 1674-6); Hamibez, S.J., De scientia Dei (Madrid, 1708); de Ahanda, S.}.. De Deo sciente, prisdestinantc et auxiliante, seu Sckola scienticB medtte (Sara- gossa, 1693) ; Sterzi.nger, Hcientia media plene conciliala cum doc-

trina 5. Tkomw (Innsbruck, 1728). Of more recent works see Hense, Die Lehre vom gottlichen Vorherwissen der zukUnftigen frcien Handlungen in Katholik (Mainz, 1S72-3) ; Cornoldi, S.J., Delta Hbertd umana (Rome, 1884) ; Pecci, Sentenza di S. Tommaso circa Vin/liisso di Dio sulle azioni delle creature ragionevoli e sulla scienza media (Rome, 1885) ; Schwane, Das giillUche Vorherwissen (Miinster, 1885); Schneider, Das Wissert Ci^"> , ./, "- , Lehre des hi. Thomas von Aquin (4 vols., Ratisbim, : I > ! t i dner, O.P., Die Lehre des St. Thomas Uber die ft . ' ,l< r ver-

nUnftigen Wesen (Graz, 1890); Idem, T/..' \i-h,:n in

Commer's Jahrbuch fiir Philos. u. spekul'i t Is'U — );

Fnil^s, S.J. , De cooperatione Dei cum omni II. -i libera

(Paris, 1892), answered by DuMMERMnii ' ' /" doc-

trinir S. Thomit ,1, vri< milium, phiisvn iVu, I II [ HEIM,

S I r ' ■ / T' ' . iFi il II 1 I ii ^\N. !^.i.,De

li I I » t limes physicas

1 1 ' I I ' ' / Vorherwissen

mill I I (1 1 iiF^ tM II I \\i mav mention

J^^ss, Ns, L>- Dm L iiu. II 1 >tn>i . I J ■■' H, S.J., Prirlec- tiones doamalicw, V ^3rd ed., 19Ui>), 140 sqq.. Pohle, Dogmatik, I (4th ed., 1908), 191-210; II C4th ed., 1909), 474-82.


Molinos, Miguel de, founder of Quietism, b. at Mu- niesa, .Spain, 21 Dec, 1640; d. at Rome, 28 Dec, 1696. In his youth he went to Valencia, where, having been ordained priest and received the degree of doctor, he held a benefice in the church of Santo Tomds and was confessor to a community of nuns. He pretended to be a disciple of the Jesuits and quoted them as his authority in his differences with the university. In 1662 he went to Rome as procurator in the cause of the beatification of Venerable Jer6nimo Sim6n. Here, after residing in various other places, he finally took up his abode at the church of Sant' Alfonso which be- longed to the Spanish Discalced August inians. The Jesuits and Dominicans having accused him of perni- cious teachings, the Inquisition ordered his books to be examined. He defended himself well and was acquit- ted; but again Cardinal d'Estrees, French ambassador at Rome, acting on instructions from Paris, denounced him to the authorities. In May, 1685, the Holy Office formulated charges against him and ordered his arrest. The report of the process was read on 3 September, 1687, in the Dominican church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, in the presence of an immense concourse of people gathered for the occasion by means of grants of indulgences; he was declared a dogmatic heretic, sen- tenced to life imprisonment, to be perpetually clothed in the penitential garb, to recite the Credo and one- third of the Rosary, and to make confession four times every year. He received the sacraments on his death- bed. He taught interior annihilation, asserting that this is the means of attaining purity of sou), perfect contemplation, and the rich treasure of interior peace: hence follows the licitness of impure carnal acts, inas- much as only the lower, sensual man, instigated by the demon, is concerned in them. In the cases of .seven- teen penitents he excused their lascivious acts, and cluinifil tluit those committed by himself were not blameworthy, as free will had had no part- in them.

Innocent 'XI, in the Bull "Cttlestis Pastor" (2 November, 1687), condemned as heretical, suspect, erroneous, scandalous, etc., sixty-eight propositions which Molinos admitted to be his, being convicted of having asserted them in speech and in writing, com- municated them to others, and believed them— [jropo- sitions which are not those of the "Guia Espiritual alone. Moreover, the pope prohibited and condemned all his works, printed or in manuscript. Molinos had followers in abundance; when he was arrested, it i.» saiil that twelve thousand letters from persons who consulted him were found in his po.ssession. More tlKUi two hundred persons at Rome found themselves im|)licaled in the affair; several communities of nuns practised the "praver of quiet", while tlie iiKjuisitorial proceedings in It;ilv lasted until the eightcenlh cen- tury. In Spain, the Bishop of Oviedo, taken to Rome and imprisoned in the Castle of Sant' Angelo, the priest Juan de Causadas, and the Carmelite lay brother Juan de Longas, who corrupted a convent of religious women, wcre~all punished as disciples of