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MONACO


447


MONAD


ever, did not affect his industry. His literary im- portance lies especially in his editions of ancient writ- ings. The following may be mentioned: "Chronica Eusebii, Hieronymi, Prosperi et Matthsei Palmerii" (Milan, 1475); "Scriptores rei Augustie" (1475); "PapiiB Glossarium" (1476): "Mirabilia mundi" of Solinus (s. 1. a.). A very notable contribution to hagiography is his collection of records of the martyr- dom and lives of saints,, which appeared under the title: "Sanctuarium" (2 folio vols., s. 1. a.), probably printed in 1480, and recently edited (Paris, 1910) by the Benedictines of Solesmes (Boninus Mombritius, Sanctuarium seu vitie Sanctorum. Novam editionem cur. monachi Solesmenses. 2 tomi). He also com- posed poems, some of which were published in his edi- tions of the ancient writings, and some printed sepa- rately. Of the latter may be particularly mentioned "De passione Domini" (reprinted, Leipzig, 1499).

He vita et operibus Bonini Mombritii testimonia selecta in the above-mentioned new edition of the Sanctjiarium, I (Paris, 1910). xiii-xxix; Fabricius, Bibl. lat.. V (Hamburg, 1736), 257; Bibl.-script. Mediolan., I (Milan. 17S4), cxlvi-cliii; Hckter, NomenclatoT, II (3rd ed., Innsbruck, 1906), 1035.

J. P. KmscH.

Monaco, Principality and Digce-se of, situated on the Mediterranean Sea, on the skirts of the Turbie and the Tete de Chien mountains, is surrounded on all sides by the French department of the Maritime Alps, and has an area of 5337 acres. On account of its beautiful climate, it is one of the most popular win- ter resorts in Europe. Its principal resources are the fishery of the gulf, the cultivation of fruit trees (olive, orange, lemon), and the Casino of Monte Carlo, es- tablished in 1856, whose revenues are sufficient to free the inhabitants of the principality from the burden of taxation. The capital consists of three large bor- oughs: the old Monaco, which is built on a promon- torj- that extends 875 yards into the sea and encloses the harbour; the other two are Condamine and Monte Carlo. From ancient times until the nineteenth cen- tury the port of Monaco was among the most im- portant of the French Mediterranean coast, but now it has lost all commercial significance. Among the notable constructions of the principality are the an- cient fortifications, the old ducal palace which contains beautiful frescoes by Annibale Carracci, Orazio ¥er- rari, and Carlone, the cathedral, built (1884-87) in the Byzantine style, by Prince Albert III, the Casino of Monte Carlo, and the monumental fountain of the public square. Monaco dates from the time of the Phoenicians, who, on the promontory upon which the old town is built, erected a temple to the god Mel- karth, called Monoicos, solitarj', that is, not con- nected with the cult of Ashtorcth; whence the town derived its name, which is Moneque, in Provenc^al. In the early Middle Ages the neighbouring lords often contended with each other for the possession of this important port, which later was occupied by the Sara- cens; it was taken from them in the tenth century by Count Grimaldi, in whose family the [irincipality re- mains to this day. Formerly, it comprised Mcnione and Roquebrune. The Grimaldis often had to dcfi'iul themselves against Spanish or Genoese fleets; the most famous blockade of the town was that of 1.506, which failed. In 1619 Prince Honoratus II, with the assistance of the French, drove the Spaniards from Monaco, and since that time the principality has been under the protection of France. During tlie Revolu- tion, Monaco was annexed to France, but the prin- cipality was re-established in 1814. A revolution broke out in 1S4S against the misgovernment of Prince Honoratus V, who lost Menfone and Roque- brune. these cities declaring themselves free republics, and (1860) voting for their annexation (o France.

Monaco belonged to the Diocese of Nice, but, in 1868, it became an abbey niiHuis, and at the instance of Prince Charles III, Leo XIII raised it to a diocese,


immediately dependent upon the Holy See, making the abbot, Mgr Bonaventure Theuret, its first bishop. De Royer de Sainte-Sczanne, La Frincipauti de Monaco (Paris, 1SS4).

U. Benigni.

Monad (from the Greek iwvit, .uoniSos), in the sense of ultimate, indivisible unit, appears very early in the history of Greek philosophy. In the ancient accounts of the doctrines of Pythagoras, it occurs as the name of the unity from which, as from a principle (°-PX'n), all number and multiplicity are derived. In the Platonic "Dialogues" it is used in the plural (iMovaiei) as a synonym for the Ideas. In Aristotle's "Metaphysics" it occurs as the principle (ipx'i) of number, itself being devoid of quantity, indi\isible and unchangeable. The word monad is used by the neo-Platonists to signify the One; for instance, in the letters of the Christian Platonist Synesius, God is de- scribed as the Monad of Monads. It occurs both in ancient and medieval philosophy as a synonym for atom, and is a favourite term with such writers as Gior- dano Bruno, who .speak in a rather indefinite manner of the minima, or minutely small substances which constitute all reality. In general, it may be affirmed that while the term atom, not only in its physical, but also in its metaphysical meaning, implies merely cor- poreal, or material attributes, the monad, as a rule, implies something incorporeal, spiritual, or, at least, vital. The term monad is, however, generally under- stood in reference to the philosophy of Leibniz, in which the doctrine of monadism occupies a po.sition of paramount importance. In order to understand his doctrine (see Leibniz) on this point, it is necessary to recall that he was actuated by a twofold motive in his attempt to define substance. He wished, in accord- ance with his general irenic plan, to reconcile the doc- trine of the atomists with the scholastic theory of matter and form, and besides he wished to avoid on the one hand the extreme mechanism of Descartes, who taught that all matter is inert, and on the other the monism of Spinoza, who taught that there is but one substance, God. All this he hoped to accomplish by means of his doctrine of monads. Descartes had defined substance in terms of independent existence, and Spinoza was merely inferring what was implicitly contained in Descartes's definition when he concluded that therefore there is only one substance, the su- premely independent Being, who is God. Leibniz pre- fers to define substance in terms of independent ac- tion, and thus escapes Descartes's doctrine that matter is by nature inert.. At the same time, since the sources of independent action may be manifold, he es- capes Spinoza's pantheistic monism. The atomists had maintained the existence of a multiplicity of mi- nute substances, but had invariably drifted into a materialistic denial of the existence of spirits and spir- itual forces. The scholastics had rejected this mate- rialistic consequence of atomism and, by so doing, had seemed to put themselves in oppo.sition to the current of modern scientific thought. Leibniz thinks he .-iees a way to reconcile the atomists with the scholastics. He teaches that all substances are composed of minute particles which, in every case, in the lowest minerals as well as in the highest spiritual beings, arc partly material and partly immalerial. Thus, he imagines, the sharp contrast between atomistic materialism and scholastic spiritualism disap])ears in presence of the doctrine that all differences are merely differences of degree.

The monads are, therefore, simple, unextended sub- stances, if by substance we understand a cenire of force. They cannot begin or end exceiit by creation or annihilation. They are capable of internal activ- ity, but cannot be influenced in a physical manner by anything outside themselves. In this sen.se they are independent. Moreover, each monad is unique; that