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MONREALE


508


MONSABRE


thelites arc the acts of the LuttTiui sytind arui of the sixth rouneil, the worksof St. Maximus CoNKKSsoH and Anastabius Sinaita, and the CoUectanfa of Anastasius Bibliothecarius. Of modern works only a few need be specially mentioned: CombAfis, Atictarium norum, II IHisloria Monothelitarum et Disserlatio apol. pro actis VI si/nodi (Paris, 1648) ; Petavius, De I ncarnalione, VIII, IX; Hef-ele, llisl. of Councils. V (Eng. tr.); Babden- HEWER, Ungedruckte Ejcerpte aus einer Schri/t dts Patriarchen Eulogius roil AUiandria (in Theolog. Quarlalschrifl. 1896. no. 78); OwsEpiAN, Die Entstehurtgsgesehichte des Monothcletismtts nach ihren Quelten ocpruft (Leipzig, 1897). See also Hongrius I, Pope, and ^lAXIMU8 of Co.sstantinople.

John Chapman.

Monreale, ARcnDiocE.SB of, in the province of Palermo, ."^icily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo. The city i.s built in a commanding situation over the port of Palermo. It w.is a plea-sure resort of the Norman kings, to whom it owes its foundation. In 11(57 Wil- liam II built there the eliurch of Santa Maria Nuova, with its adjoining monastery for the Benedictines of Cava dei Tirreni — the most superb ino- iia.stir building of the Hcuedictine Order in Europe, famous for its cloister and its graceful Moresque colonnade. At the pre,sent time only the lower portion of the convent is in the pos- session of the monks. The church {now the cathedral) is the noblest in Sicily, though the portico of its f!u;ade has been restored in a stjle not in harmony with the remainder of the building. Its bronze doors, the work of IJ o n a n n o of Pi.sa (1186), are notable, as are al.so the ara- besquesoftheportals. The interior has three naves, and the columns of Egyp- t ian marble have foiled and figured capil als, each dilTer- cnt from tlu' others. The apse and the lateral walls are covered with beautiful mosaics, representing scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The high altar Ls covered with worked sheets of silver (seventeenth century), and, in a chapel to its right, are the tombs of William I the Wicked and of Wilham II. The chapel of Saint Benedict contains sculptures by Marabitti (eighteenth century). In 1811 a fire destroyed the roof, which was restored in a way to leave the rafters exposed to view. On the mountain beyond the city is the monastery of San Martino of the Cassinese Benedictines, whose church is rich in works of art; farther on is the castle of San Benedetto, built by the Saracen.s. In 1174 the abbey of Monreale was de- clared a " pnrlatura nullius" ; two years later its abbot was vested with the title and jurisdiction of a bishop, and in 1182 he became the metropolitan of Cata- nia and of Syracuse, kt first the archbishops were elected by the monks, but were not always Benedic- tines; since 127,5, however, the election has been re- ser\'wi to itself by the Holy See. In time Girgenti and Caltagirone also became suffragan to Monreale; but Syracuse, in 1844, and Catania, in 1860, became ar- chiepiscopal sees. The former having become the Metropolitan of Caltagirone, Monreale received the new Diocese of Caltanisetta (18(50), which see and Girgenti are now its only suffragans. Among the archbishops of this see have been Cardinal Giovanni Proccamazza (1278); Cardinal .Au.ssio Despuig de Podio (14,58); Cardinal Pompeo Colonna (1.531); Car- dinal Ippolito de' Medici (1532); Alessandro Farnese


Cathedral Church, XII Century-


(1.536); Eudovico de Torres (1.581), founder of (he seminary; Cardinal Vitaliano Visconti (1670); Car- dinal Traian d'Acquaviva d'.\ragona (1739). From 1775 to 1802 Monreale and Palermo were united. The archdiocese has 30 parishes with 228,600 inhabit- ants; 3.52 secular and 66 regular priests; 26 convents of men and one of women; three educational institutes for male students and three for girls.

Cappelletti, Chicse d'ltcilia, XXI (Venice, 1857); Lello, Historia delta chiesa di Monreale (Rome, 1596).

U. Benigni.

Monroe, James, soldier, convert, b. in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S. A., lOSept., 1799; d. at Orange, New Jersey, 7 Sept., 1870. He was the son of An- drew a brother of President James Monroe, and greatly resembled his illustrious uncle. After the usual course at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, he graduated in 1815, and was commis- sioned a lieutenant of artillery. In the war with the Alge- rian pirates he was wounded, 17 June, 1815, while directing the guns of the frigate La Gucrriere in a battle off Cape de (lata, Spain. As an aide to General Scott he served during 1817-22, and did gar- rison duty as a first lieutenant of the 4th .Vrtillery to 30 Sept., 1832, when he re- signed from thearmy. Settling in New York he entered public life, being elected to the Board of Aldermen, 1833-35, and to Con- gress, 1839^1. He was nominated to Congress also in 1846, but the elec- tion being contested and a new election ordered he de- clined to run again. In 1850-52 he was a member of the New York legislature, and then retired from pub- lic life on the death of his wife. Previous to the out- break of the Civil War he visited Richmond and sought by speeches and personal influence to prevent the secession of his native State, Virginia. All through the war he was a staunch upholder of the Union. His brother Andrew F. Monroe, b. at Charlottesville, Va., 5 March, 1824, after graduating at the U. S. Naval Academy served during the Mexican War, and while on a naval expedition to China, in 1853, also be- came a convert. He joined the Society of Jesus in 18.54 and was ordained priest in 1860. He was for a number of years one of the faculty of St. Francis Xavier's College, New Y'ork, where he died 2 Aug., 1872.

CtJLLUM, Biog. Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Af Hilary Academy. I (New York, 1891); Heitman, Hist. Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army (Wa.shington, 1903), 8. v.; National Encycl. of .4m. Biog.. a. v.; The College of St. Francis Xavier (New York, 1897).

Thomas F. Meehan.

MonsabrS, JACQUES-MARIE-Lonis, celebrated pul- pit orator, b. at Blois, France, 10 Dec, 1827; d. at Havre, 21 Feb., 1907. He was ordained as a secular priest 15 June, 1851, but soon felt he had a religious vocation. On the thirty-first of July, 1851, the feast of St. Ignatius, he celebrated his first Mass and thought seriously of entering the Society of Jesus. Four days later, however, the feast of St. Dominic, he decided to become a Dominican and immediately


Monreale

Portico, XVI Century