wrote a letter of application to Pere Lacordaire. He had to wait four years for release from the diocese, as the bishop had received authorization from the Holy See to withhold that long his permission for newly or- dained priests to enter a religious order. In May, 1855, he received his dimissorials, entered the noviti- ate at Flavigny, received the habit on the thirty-first of the same month and one year later made his simple profession. A few days later he was sent to the house of studies at Chalais, where he spent a year in solitude and prayer. In the winter he was appointed to preach the Lenten sermons in the clmrch of St. Ni- zier, at Lyons, where he gave the first indication of that eloquence which was later to illuminate all France. After preaching the Lenten sermons in Lyons, Monsabre was assigned to the convent of St. Thomas, in Paris, where he began to give conferences. After interrupting this ministry for several years he took it up again. In the Advent of 1867 he gave con- ferences in the convent church. He preached then for a number of years in the prin- cipal cities of France, Belgium, and even in Lon- don, conducting retreats, novenas, andtriduums. His reputation, how- ever, was really first made by the course of Advent sermons which he preached in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, in 1869, as successor of the unfortunate Carmelite, Pere Hyacinthe Loyson. The success of these conferences brought the invitation to preach the Lenten sermons in Notre Dame in 1870, succeeding Pere F61ix of the Society of .lesus. During the siege of Paris by the Prussian troops, the conferences at Notre Dame were interrupted. On the capitulation of Metz, Monsabr(5 preached from one of its pulpits. Meanwhile the Archbishop of Paris, Monsignor Dar- boy. had fallen a victim to the Commune and was suc- ceeded by Monsignor Guihort, who lost no time in inviting Monsabre to occupy the pulpit of his cathe- dral. From this time; on, Pere Monsabre preached in the Cathedral of Notn; Dame for twenty years and proved himself a worthy successor of Bossuet, Lacor- daire and all the other great preachers whom the French Church has produced. He conceived and exe- cuted the gigantic plan of expounding the whole sys- tem of Catholic dogmatic theology. Not often, per- haps never before, did a preacher succeed in holding so larg(! an audience comi)letely under the sway of his eloquence for so long a time.
The classic and elegant form of Monsabr6's dis- courses attracted the educated class of France. "His intense love of souls and apostolic zeal made his dis- courses throb with life, and his dear and profoundly thcolcjgiial mind enabled him to shed light <'vcn upon the most abstruse tenets of the faith, while his earnest and impassioned ai)peals to all the noblest impulses of man always met with an enthusiastic respon.se." Monsabre's published works consist of forty-eight volumes, the " L'exposition du Dogme ('atholi(|Uc" being famous for its eloquence and popular exposition of Catholic dogma. In 1890 he preached the Advent sermons in Rome. In 1891 he gave the same course in Toulouse. On the death of Monsignor Freppel,
Bishop of Angers, he was invited to fill the vacancy in the Chamber of Deputies, but declined. In 1S71 he was sent to the ( Icneral Chapter of Ghent to represent his province and in IS'.IS to that of Avila as Definitor. His apostohc labours closed with the magnificent oration delivered at Reims on the occasion of the fourteenth centenary of the baptism of Clovis, King of the Franks. Since 1903 he lived in retirement. In that year the Dominican convent in which he lived was confiscated by the governnicnl, and he was obliged to take refuge in a modest little home in which he died.
VAtmee Doviinicaine, April, 1907, 140: .July, 1907, 289; The Rosary Mayazine, XXX, 459.
Monseigneur (from mon, "my" and seigneur, "elder" or "lord", like Lat. senior), a French hono- rific appellation, etymologically corresponding to the English "my lord", and the Italian monsignore. It is, after all, nothing but the French monsieur; but, while the latter has become current as applied to every man who is in good society, Monseigneur has retained its honorific force. In ecclesiastical usage it is reserved for bishops and archbishops, and is chiefly employed when speaking or writing to them. It is used before t he name (thus abridged : Mgr Dupanloup) . Former- ly it was not prefixed to the title of dignity, but it is now, as "Mgrl'evequedeN ..." The term Moresei- gncur is also used as tlie equivalent of the Italian Monsi- gnore, and an the latter title is given to Roman prelates, some confusion results; in Italy, however, no incon- venience arises from this usage as in that country bishops have the title of Eccellenza, i. e.. Excellency. In France, only the Archbishop of Reims, as legatus natus, has the title of Excellency (see MoNsinNOR).
H^RicooRT, Les lois eccUsiastiques de France, E. V, 22.
Monsell, William, Baron Emly, b. 21 Sept., 1812; d. at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894. His father was William Monsell of Tervf)e: his mother, Olivia, daughter of Sir John Walsli of Ballykilcavan. He was educated at Winchester ( ls2ti-ls:iO) and Oriel College, O.xford, but he left the university without proceeding to a degree. As his father had died in 1822 he succeeded to the family estates on coming of age and was a popular landlord, the more so as he was resi- dent. In 1836 he married Anna Maria Quin, daugh- ter of the second Earl of Dunraven, but there was no issue of the marriage. After her death in 18,55 he mar- ried Bertha, youngest daughter of the Comte de Martigny (1857), by whom he had one son and one daughter. In 1847 he was returned to Parliament as member for the County of Limerick in the Liberal interest and represented the constituency till 1874. In 1850 he bei'anie a Catholic and thereafter took a prom- inent part in Catholic iifTairs, especially in Parliament . As a friend of Wi.scman, Xewmiui, .M(int:il:imbert, W. Ci. Ward, and other cminenl Catholics, he was inti- mately acquainted with the various interests of the Church, and his ]):irliamenlary advocacy was often of great advantage to the hierarchy. In the Hou.se it.self he was .successful and filled many offices. He was clerk of the ordnance from 1852 to 1857; was ap- pointed privy councillor in 1855; was vice-president of the board of trade in IS6G; under-.sccretary for the colonics, lS(iS 1,S70; poslnuistcr-general, Jan., 1,871, to Nov., 1S73. Finally he was raised to the peerage as Baron Kndy (,ii 12 Jan., 1S71. lie lost much of his popularilv in Irel.ind (luring his hiler years, owing to his opposition to the land league and lot he lliinie Rule movement. His work being chiefly parliamentary, he wrote little, but published some articles in the "Home and I'oreign Review" and a "Lecture on the Roman (Question" (18(i0),
Wakd. IV. a. Wiird ami Ihe Olfard Movemml (London, ISnH); Ibem, W. (I. Ward arul Ihe CaCRoiic Reciiial (London, 1883); Ide«