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crossed the ocean on board one of the Empress liners of the same company. At Quebec the P'ederal Govornnieiit yacht met the cardinal and his suite, and conveyed tlu-ni thence to Montreal. All alonn the route, the population on the hanks of the river greeted the legate as he passed. .\t Montreal, despite most in- clement weather, an immense crowd gave him an enthusiastic reception. Mayor Guerin presented ad- dresses of welcome in French and English. During the congress, the Federal Government, the Provincial Government, and the City of Montreal each held a reception for the legate and other official personages. Under the innnediate direction of Archbishop Bruchcsi and the more remote direction of the Per- manent Committee of the Eucharistic Congresses, presided over by Mgr Heylen, Bishop of Namur, four great committees laboured to organize the Con-

e'ess of Montreal: Committee of Works: president, anon Gauthier; vice-presidents, MM. Lecoq, Mc- Shane, Perrier, and Auclair. Committee of Finance: president. Canon Martin; vice-presidents, Sir Thomas Shaughnessy and Hon. L. J. Forget. Committee of Reception: presidents. Canon Dauth and Father Donnelley; vice-presidents. Canon Roy and Father Troie. Committee of Decorations and Procession: president, Canon Le Pailleur; vice-presidents, Fathers Belanger, Laforee, Piette, Rusconi, O'Reilley, Martin, Deschamps, Heffernan. To these committees there had been added for press purposes a special commit- tee presided over by Father Elie J. Auclair.

Present Conditions. — The Diocese of Montreal, at the present time (1910) is under the direction of Mgr Paul Bruchesi, with an auxiliary bishop (at present the Rt. Rev. Mgr Zotique Racicot, titular Bishop of Pogla), and a cathedral chapter. The CathoUc population is about 470,000, served by 720 priests; the non-Catholics, about 80,000; there are 150 parishes or missions, 66 of which are in the city and sulsurbs. Besides Laval University (see above), the seminaries and colleges are: the Grand Scminaire, with 350 students; the Seminary of Philosophy, 120; the Montreal College, 300; and Sacerdotal College, recently founded and under the direction of the Sulpicians; St. Mary's and Loyola College, under the direction of the Jesuits; those of Ste Th6rese and I'Assomption, under secular priests, and of Saint Laurent, under the Fathers of the Holy Cross. In all, some 2000 boys and young men are trained in these colleges. In addition to these, 64,000 children are taught in the schools or convents of reUgious orders, and 24,000 by lay Catholic teachers, men and women. Some 1500 Brothers, and more than 3700 Sisters devote themselves, in the diocese, to works of teaching or of charity. There are nearly 60 hospices, asylums, or orphanages, where some 45,000 old people, orphans, sick, and infirm are charitably cared for. Moreover, according to the latest official diocesan re- port, from which the above details are gathered, more than 200 secular priests from this diocese and more than 4000 Sisters minister or teach in other parts of Canada or in the United States.

In 1900, there were some 390 secular priests in the diocese, 80 Sulpicians, 150 Jesuits, 20 Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 30 Franciscans (in Montreal since 1890), .30 Trappists, 50 Redemptorists (in Montreal since 1SS4), 30 Fathers of the Holy Cross, 20 of the Holy Sacrament (1890), 8 of St. Viator, 5 of the Company of Marv, 10 Dominicans (1901), 2 Brothers of St. Vincent de Paul (190S). It would be impossible to give all the details of this useful and fruitful reli- gious life. The Carmelites (1S75) and the Sisters of the Precious Blood (1874) are vowed to the contemplative life. To these communities have been added the Little Sisters of the Poor (1887), the Soeurs de TEspfoance (1901), the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception (1904), the Daughters of Wi.sdom (1910), and the Brothers of the Presentation (1910). The parishes,

"in town and country, are in a flourishing condition. Mgr Bruehi^i has devised a plan of giving poor churches help and protection by making certain rich, older parishes act as t h<'ir sponsors. Every year, on one of tlic Sundays of September, all Montreal visits the cemetery, near the top of Mount Royal, where, in the presence of 50,0(1(1 Catholics, a service for the dead takes place, po.ssihly the only one of its kind in the worl<l. On the eve of the civic Labour Iloliilay, the archbishop has, for some years past, invited the work- men of his diocese to be present at a religious service.

Archives de Varchevichi de MorUreal; La Scm. Reliaieuse (Mont- real), files; De Celles, Papineau (Montrral, 1905); Cadiedx AND Derome. Calendr er cccUsiatttique (1905); Chassegros. Hial. du noviciat des Jesuites: Fournet in Diet, de thiol, cath. (Paria, 1904) , a. V. Canada ; Tanoua y. Repertoire du derg^ canadien (Mont- real, 1893): Garneau, Histoire du Canada, II, III; Guerard, La France Canadienne in Le Correspondant (April. 1877); Christie, History of Canada (Quebec, 1S4S) ; Relation de Jacques Cartier in Lescarbot, Hist, de la N ouvelle-Francc (Paris, 1609) ; Dionnb, La N ouvelle-France de Cartier A Champlain (Quebec, 1891) ; Beau- bien. Hist, de SauU-au-Ricollet (Montreal, 1897) ; Faillon, Vie de Mme d' Youville (Montreal, 1852) ; Jette, Vie de la Venirable Mire d'YouMle (Montreal, 1900); Garnead, Histoire du Canada, I; DoLLiER DE Casson. Histoire de Montreal (Montreal, 1869); Faillon, Histoire de la Colonic Francaise en Canada (Montreal, 1865) ; Idem, Vie de la Ven. Mire Bourgeoys (Paris, 1853) ; Idem, Vie de Mile Mance (Paris, 1854) ; Idem, Vie de M. Olier (Paris, 1873); RouMAN, Vie de Paul Chomodey de Maisonneuve (Mont- real, 1886); The Narrative of the Eucharistic Congress, September 7-11, 1910 (Montreal, 1910).

Elie J. Auclair.

Montreuil, Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pr6s, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Depart- ment of Pas-de-Calais, France, founded by Robert, Count of Boulogne and Auvergne. The charter of foundation is dated from the chateau d'Hardelot on 15 July, 1324; the church was consecrated in 1338. The foundation, being close to Calais, was liable to dis- turbance in time of war. Thus it was often sacked by the English during the wars in the fourteenth and fif- teenth centuries, and was for a time abandoned. The religious returned when peace was restored. In 1542 the monastery was again wrecked by the Imperial troops and in the wars of religion fresh troubles at- tended the community. Finally the house was re- built by Dom Bernard Bruyant in the latter part of the seventeenth century and remained undisturbed un- til the Revolution. In 1790 the monastery was sup- pressed and its property sold by auction the following year. Eighty-two years later the Carthusians repur- cha.sed a portion of their old estate and the first stone of the new monastery was laid on 2 April, 1872. The work was pushed forward with such energy by the Prior, Dom Eusebe Bergier, that the whole was fin- ished in three years. The monastery contains twenty- four cells in its cloister. Montreuil has taken a spe- cial position among Carthusian houses, owing to 'the establishment there of a printing press from which has been issued a number of works connected with the order. Dom le Couteulx's "Annales" (in eight vols.) and the edition of Denys the Carthusian may be quoted as examples of the fine printing done by the monks. By the recent "Association Laws" the com- munity of Montreuil has been once more ejected. The monks are now lodged in the Charterhouse of Parkminster, England; the printing works have been transferred to Toumai in Belgium.

Tromby, Storia . . . dell' ordine Cartusiano (Naples, 1773); Le CouTEULX, .innales ordinis Cartusiensis (Montreuil, 1901); Lbfebvre, S. Bruno et I'ordre des Chartreux (Paris, 1883).

G. Roger Hudleston.

Montreuil Abbey, a former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France. Some incorrectly claim that it was the first convent of Cistercian nuns. It was founded in 1136 by Bartholomew, Bishop of Laon, and within a few years it numbered nearly three hundred. In early days the community busied themselves not merely in weaving and embroidery, but also in tilhng the fields, clearing the forest, and weeding the soil.