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administration of the governor Ctibor of Cymburg (1469-94), who, although a Utraquist, enjoyed the confidence of both princes, Wladislaw was able to leave to his son Louis II in 1516, considering the troubled era, a splendidly ordered land. Louis was slain in the Battle of Mohdcs against the Turks (1526). As he was childless, Ferdinand of Hapsburg, husband of Anna Jagellon, the sister of Louis, claimed Moravia with Bohemia and Hungary. His claim was admitted by the assembly of the Moravian Estates, who did homage to Ferdinand at Brtinn and Olmiitz in 1527.

Turning to ecclesiastical affairs, there was in Mora- via in the fifteenth century, besides the Catholics and Utraquists, a third confession, the so-called "Breth- ren's Union". This body had spread widely, thanks mainly to the patronage of certain influential nobles, who could defy all decrees of banishment. Luther's teaching thus found a favourable soil in Moravia, and spread rapidly, especially in the cities of Olmiitz, Znaim, and Iglau. From 1526 Moravia was also the refuge and new home of the Anabaptists, the adherents of Hubmaier, the Gabrielists, and the Mora- vian Brethren, who later emigrated to Russia and thence to the United States. The friendly attitude of Emperor Maximilian II (1564-76) towards Protest- antism favoured the growth of all these non-Catholic movements. With the foundation of the Jesuit Col- leges of Briinn and Olmiitz (1574) the Catholic Coun- ter-Reformation set in, its direction being undertaken by Franz von Dietrichstein, Bishop of Olmiitz (1599- 1636). The Bohemian rising against the emperor in 1618 extended for a short time to Moravia, and on 19 August, 1619, the opposition party of the Moravian Estates voted in common with the Bohemian Estates at Prague for the deposition of Ferdinand and the election of Frederick of the Palatinate as Kng of Bohemia. In Feb., 1620, the latter succeeded in mak- ing his entry into Briinn as Margrave of Moravia, but the Battle of the White Mountain gave victory to the cause of the emperor and Catholicism, and the im- perial generals occupied the land. Sharp punishment was meted out to the leaders of the rebellion and the revolting cities ; in 1622 the Anabaptists were compelled to leave the land, and in 1623-S the Brethren's Union.

An imperial edict of 9 March, 1628, ordered the re- turn to the Catholic Church, and compelled all recu- sants to emigrate. The Protestant religion, however, continued under the surface, especially in the German townships. From 1642 Moravia was the theatre of the devastating wars between the imperial forces and the Swedes, who maintained a foothold in the land un- til the Peace of 1648 (in Olmutz until 1650). Sixty- three castles, twenty-two large towns, and three hun- dred and thirty villages were destroyed, and the plague swept away thousands of the inhabitants whom the war had spared. On the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War the Catholic restoration was ac- tively resumed. From Olmiitz, Briinn, Iglau, Znaim, and Hradisch outwards, the Jesuits displayed a fruit- ful activity by holding missions far and wide, while the Piarists performed valuable service by establishing schools in numerous places. The lack of secular clergy, however, continued for a long time an obsta- cle to complete Catholicization. Under Leopold I, Joseph I, and Charles VI, Moravia enjoyed as a rule peaceful conditions, although in 1633 the Turks and Tatars penetrated as far as Olmiitz and Briinn, dev- astating the land. The wars begun by Frederick 11 of Prussia for the possession of Silesia reduced Mora- via to a piteous state, especially northern Moravia and Olmiitz. Maria Theresa and Joseph II intro- duced extensive alterations in almost all branches of the administrative system. The administration was greatly centralized, the autonomy of the estates and the Diet was abolished, and in 1782 Moravia was united with Silesia for purposes of administration. In favour of the Protestants a patent of tolerance was

issued, while on the other hand thirteen monasteries for men and six for women were suppressed. The University of Olmiitz, deserted after the suppression of the Jesuit Order, was transferred in 1778 to Briinn, where a bishopric had been founded in 1777, Olmiitz being simultaneously raised to an archdiocese. Em- peror Leopold restored to the estates a certain inde- pendence.

The Napoleonic era did not pass by without leaving a landmark in Moravia, for at Austerlitz, in the centre of the land, was fought the decisive battle of the Third Coalition War, and the subsequent contest be- tween Austria and Napoleon took place partly in Moravia (Battle of Znaim). The Restoration was followed by many years of peace. The Austrian Revo- lution of 1848 gave Moravia and the other crown lands of Austria a constitution, substantially unaltered to- day, and admitted the co-operation of the people in the making of laws. In 1866 Moravia was the scene of the latest war between Austria and Prussia, which was decided at the Battle of Koniggratz, and a Mora- vian town, Nikolsburg, witnessed the preliminary negotiations which resulted in the Peace of Prague. In the subsequent era of peace Moravia made great strides in cultural and economical development. The national quarrels between the Germans and Czechs, which even to-day (1910) convulse Austria and es- pecially the portion of Bohemia bordering on Mora- via, found a friendly settlement in Moravia in 1905. The electoral conditions were altered so as to include — in addition to the three electoral classes of the landed interests, the cities, and the rural districts — a fourth general electoral class consisting of every qualified voter; separate German and Czech electoral districts were established according to the national land regis- ters, and curise of the separate nationalities were insti- tuted to settle all disputes involving the question of na- tionality. The question of language in the case of the autonomous national and district authorities has been settled on a bilingual basis, and the division of the school board according to nationality accomplished. Although, by the acceptance of this franchise reform, the Germans lost their previous majority in the Diet, they gave their consent to the change in the interests of public peace.

Politically speaking the Margraviate of Moravia is an Austrian crown land, the highest administrative authority being vested in the governor at Briinn. The Diet consists of 149 deputies: 2 members with individ- ual vote, the Archbishop of Olmiitz and the Bishop of Briinn; 30 members of the landed interests (10 Ger- man, 20 Czech); 3 deputies from the Chamber of Commerce of Olmiitz and from that of Briinn ; 40 repre- sentatives of the towns (20 German, 20 Czech) ; 51 rep- resentatives of the rural communes (14 German); 20 deputies from the electoral curiae (6 German). In the Imperial Diet of the Austrian Crownlands Moravia is represented by 49 deputies. Ecclesiastically, the land is divided into the dioceses of Olmiitz and Briinn, which are treated in separate articles. The Protes- tants have 1 Superinlcndentur, 14 Seniorate, and 45 parishes; the Jews 50 cultural districts. The area of Moravia is 8573 square miles. According to the cen- sus of 1900 the population of Moravia was 2,437,706 inhabitants, including 2,325,574 Catholics, 185 Uniats, 66,365 Protestants, 44,255 Jews; and, accord- ing to nationality, 695,492 Germans and 1,727,270 Czechs. At the beginning of 1909 the population waa estimated at 2,591,980.

Fitter, Monasticon hinfor, diplomai. omnium MoravuB Tnona- steriorum (11 vols., 17'iri); CodfT fliplomat, et e-pist. Moravim (16 vols., Olmutz and Uniun, ls:',(; 1^)03); Erben and Emler, Re- yesta diplomat. necru>n ■ in ! . liuli, mi<v et Moraince (19 V0I3., Prague, 1855); A. W01.NY, In, M,i,l:,ir,ifsrhaft MMren (6 vols., Briinn. 1835); G. WOLNY, Kurhl. TupunraiMe von MahreniHvoU., Brunn. 1855); DnniK, Mahrens allu. Gesch. (12 vols, and index, Bruuiv 1860-88) ; Weinbhenner, Mahren u. das Bistum BrUnn (Vienna, 1877); Bretholz. Gesch. Mithrms (2 vols., Briinn, 1893-5); Trautenberoer, Chronik der Landeshauptstadt BrUnn (5 voIs.t