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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/670

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among the Chiriguano, iimoiiK whom he spent five years before lie was permitted to return to his first choice, the Moxos. In ItiSti he founded the first mission, Loreto, followed in rapid succession by Trini- dad (ItiSV), Sun Ignacio (ItiSil), .^an Xavier"(lt>9()), San Jos^ lllHU), San (Francisco del Morja (U'<m), the six missions soon containing altogetlur nearly JO.OOO Indians, Loreto alone in Itiid haying KKIO. Later missions were: San Pedro (the capital. Ki'.IS), Sanla Ana, Kxaltaci6n, Ahigdalena (titiax San Kanioii), C'oii- ci'pci6n, San Sim6n, San .loaquin, San Martin, San Luis, San Pablo, San Juan, San Nicolas, Santos Heyes, San Judas, Santa Rosa 1 (del Itenes), San Miguel, Patrocinio, Santa Rosa II, Desposorios. Santa Cruz. Of lhe.>;e, the two missions of Santa del Itenes and San .Miguel occupietl cliielly l)y the Mure, Meque, and Hocotona tribes, up by the raids of the Portuguese slave-hunters (see CiuAUANi Indians; Mameldco) subsequent to 1742, and the survivors re- moved to other foundations. Wars, epidemics, and removals led to the abandonment of San Luis, San Jose, San Pablo, Patrocinio, and San Juan. Santa Rosa II (ITti.")), Desposorios, and S.anta Cniz (lie la Sierra) were the latest, and were occupied by Siriono, Chiriguano, and Chiquito, south of the Moxos province proper. The whole number of mi.ssions at one time was about twenty, containing in 17:5(; about ;J0,0()() converts, increased to nearly 50,000 before the close of the Jesuit period, but again reduced to 20,34.5 souls in eleven missions in 1797, thirty years after the ex[)ulsion of the Jesuits.

Baraza himself was their great apostle and civilizer. Be.sides learning the principal languages and a<lapting him- self to the Indian life so that he was able to penetrate every part of the province and thus make successful discovery of a shorter mountain passage to Peru, he introduced cattle, weaving, agriculture, car-

C entry, and brick-making. The mission churches reared y the Indians imder his supervision rivalled those of Peru. At last after twenty-seven years of labour he was treacherously murdered at the age of sixty-one, on IG .September, 1702, among the then unconverted Baure, a tribe of con.siderably higher native culture than the others, living in palisaded villages on the eastern border of the province.

On the expulsion of the .Jesuits from Spanish Amer- ica in 17G7 the Moxos missions were turned over to the Franci.scans, under whom they continued into the modem period. The population has been greath' re- duced, first by the .slave raids and epidemic fevers in the e.arlier times, and more lately by the constant drain of the able-bodied men to the rubber forests of Brazil, whence few of them ever return, their superiority as boatmen rendering their services in demand as far as the .\mazon. They are comfortably dressed in cloth- ing made by themselves from bark fibre. In physique they are robust, and taller than most of the Bolivian tribes. "They are distinguished by a remarkably equable disposition, a frank and upright character, an<l great industry. They give up less time to merry- making than their southern kinsfolk, and are gener-

ally of more laborious habits, hence their industries are greatly developed, and although living far from the large towns and markets the KIoxos excel all the other Indians as weavers, builders and wood carvers" (Rectus). They are zealous Catholics, entirely under the spiritual authority of their priests, and noted for their voluntary penances, as were their convert fore- fathers two centuries ago. LInder the two principal names of Moxos and Baure, they number now about

{0,()0(), not including several tribes — as the Cani-

chana, Movima, etc. — included in the Moxos missions, but still retaining their distinct name and language.

For all that relates to the primitive condition and early mission hi8tor>- of the Moxos tribes, our principal authorities are the valuiihle writings of the Jesuits Castillo, Edeb. and Eouiluz. For the language of the Moxos and its cognate dialects, both cratiiTiiar and vocabulary, our principal source is the Arte of the Jesuit .M\RH\N., Documentos para la Uistoria (Jeo~ yrdjica tie la Repriblica de Bolivia, I, Las Provinrias tie Moyos y Chi- titiilin (La Paz, 1906); Bhinton, The American Race (New York, ISOl); Castillo. liclacion de la I'rovincia de Mojos in Ballivian, •upra; Eder, Descriplio Provincia Moxitarum in Regno Peruano (Buda, 1791); EODILUZ, Relacidn de la Misidn de los Moxos (1696); Gib- bon, Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, part II (Washington, 1S54); smaller tribes. Heath in Kansas City Review of Science, VI (Kansas City. 1883); Hervas, Ca- tiitogo de las Lenguas, I (Madrid, 1 SOO) ; Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, l-II (Paris. 1707). especially letter of Arlet on Canichana tribe and Tiii^sion in vol. II; Marban. Arte de hi Ifngnn moia, con vocabulario y iuit,>t^m<> (1701; reprinted. Leipzig, IS'.ll); Markham, Tribes in the Valley of the Amazon in Jour. An- throp. Institute, XXIV (London, 1895). a brief notice; Moreno. Bi- blioteca Boliviana; Catdlogo del Arckiw de Mojos y Chiquitos (San- tiago de Chile. 1888); d'Orbigny, UHomme Amhicain, II (Paris. 1839); Page, La Plata, the Argen- tine Confederation and Paraguay (New York, 1859); Reclus, The Earth and its Inhabitants: South A nicrica, I, The Andes Regions (New York, 1894) ; Socthey. History of Brazil. Ill (London, 1819); ,Sin(ip«M ciladlstica y geogrdfica de la repilbtica de Bolivia (La Paz. 1903); Porteb in Bolivia, published by the Inter- national Bureau of the American Republics (Washington, D. C, 1904).

James Mooney.

Moy de Sons, Karl

Ernst, Freiherr von, jurist, b. 10 August, 1799, at Munich; d. 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol). He belonged to an ancient noble family of Picardy, banished from France in 1789 and settled in Munich. After completing his studies in his native city, he became auditor in the war office; in 1827 privaldocent ; 1830-33 attorney at law, in 1833 extraordinary professor of natund and political law at VVtirtzburg; finally in 1837 ordinary professor at Munich. Because of the address by the Senate of the university to King Ludwig II concern- ing the notorious dancer Lola Montes, he was deposed together with several other professors and appointed supernumerary counsellor of the Court of Appeals at Neuburg on the Danube. Obtaining leave of ab- sence in 1848, he went to Innsbruck, where he devoted himself to literary work for the old Conservative party and in IS.'jl, after his complete severance from the service of Bavaria, he .accepted the chair of history of the German Empire and German law, in the uni- versity of that town. In 1863 he retired after having transferred the chair of German history to Ficker. In 1860-62 he was first vice-president and in 1864 president of the General Assembly of German Catho- lics. A tireless champion of Catholic ideas in speech and writing, on account of his peaceable disposition