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he was never a leader in the struggle for the Catholic cause. In Austrian politics he soon abandoned his straightforward position and became reconciled to the modern trend, warmly defending the Concordat. Among his writings, in which he devoted the greatest attention to careful research and lucid arrangement, may be mentioned "Lehrbuch des bayerischen Staatsrechtes " (Ratisbon, 1840-46); "De impedi- mentis matrimonii" (Munich, 1827); "Die Ehe und die Stellung der katholischen Kirche in Deutschland riicksichtlich dieses Punktes Hirer Disciplin " (Lands- hut, 1830); "Das Eherecht der Christen in der morgenliindischen und abendljindischen Kirche bis zur Zeit Karls des Grossen nach den Quellen darges- tell" (Ratisbon, 1833), by all means his best work; "Grundlinien einer Philosophic des Rechtes vom Katholischen Standpunkt" (2 vols., Vienna, 1854- 67); "Die weltliche Herrschaft des Papstes und die rechtliche Ordnung in Europa" (Ratisbon, 1860). He did a great service to canon law through his foundation of the "Archiv fiir Katholisches Kirchen- recht mit besonderer Rucksicht auf Oesterreich", later " mit Riicksicht auch auf Deutschland " (Innsbruck, 1857), which he edited as far as the fifth volume.

Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreicks, XIX (1868), 165-167; AUgemeine deutsche Biographic, XXII (1885), 420.

Patricius Schlager.

Moye, John Martin, Venerable, priest of the Diocese of Metz, founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence (q. v.), missionary in China, b. at Cutting, Lorraine, 27 January, 17.30; d. at Trier, 4 May, 1793. He was the sixth of the thirteen children of John Moye and Catharine Demange. His older brother, a seminarian, taught him the first rudiments of Latin, and he completed his classical studies at the College of Pont-a-Mousson. He then studied phi- losophy at the Jesuit College of Strasburg, and en- tered the theological Seminary of St-.Simon, Metz, in the fall of 1751. Ordained a priest 9 March, 1754, he was appointed vicar in the episcopal city the same month. His great zeal for souls attracted attention; many pious ladies placed themselves under his firm and wise direction. This enabled him to find some select souls for the establishment of schools for country children whose education he had much at heart. He began the work in 1763; in 1767 in spite of the ill-will of many and the persecutions of a few, the Congregation of the Sisters of Divine Provi- dence was founded. That .same year he was appointed superior of the little seminary of St. D\6. Leaving the care of his sisterhood to two friends, Father Moye now determined to act upon his long delayed desire to become a missionary. In 1769 he joined the Sfiminaire des Missions Etrangeres at Paris, and in 1773 he was at work in Oriental Su-trhucn, China. Nine years of hard labour, frequpRtly iiil( rruptiil by persecution and imprisonment, made him realize the necessity of native help. In 1782 he founded the "Christian Virgins", religious women following the rules of the Congregation of Providence at home, devoting themselves to the care of the sick and to the Christian instruction of pagan Chinese women and children in their own homes. After a hundred years of success, they are still active in the Cliinosp mission. Exhausted by labours and sickness, Fath<T Moyi- re- turned to France in 1784. He resumed the direction of the Sisters of Divine Providence and evangelized Lorraine and Alsace by preaching missions. The Revolution of 1791 drove him into exile, and with his Sisters he retired to Trier. After the capture of the city by the French troops, typhoid fever broke out and, helped by his Sisters, he devoted himself to hospital work. He contracted the \nrulent disease and died, a martyr of Christian charity, 1793. The spot where he was buried is now a pubUc square. X.— 39

Leo XIII declared John Martin Venerable and authorized the introduction of the cause of his beatification 14 January, 1891.

Marchal, Vie de M. VAbbe Moye (Paris, 1872); Weiland, Une Ame d'Apdtre, le Venerable Jean Martin Moye (Metz, 1901); Pny-PENT, Le Directoire des Sceurs de la Providence (Portieux) ; Rohhbacher, Histoire de I'Eglise (Paris, 1842-48, 9th ed., 1901); Lettres ediftanles (Paris).

Camillus p. Maes.

Moylan, Francis, Bishop of Cork, b. at Cork, 1739; d. in 1815. He was the son of a rich merchant. As the penal laws made it impossible for him to ob- tain a suitable education at home, he was sent to Paris, and educated there. His father desired that he should adopt a mercantile calling; but young Moy- lan's vocation being for a religious life he wished to join the Carthusians. Delicate health, however, stood in his way, and after finishing his course at the Uni- versity of Toulouse, where he was graduated as doctor of theology, he was ordained priest in 1761 and for some years laboured in Paris. Returning to Cork he was appointed pastor of St. Finbarr's in the city, and remained there till 1775, when he became Bishop of Kerry. In 1787 he was transferred to the See of Cork and continued to rule that diocese till his death. Like Dr. Troy of Dublin, Dr. Moylan had no sympathy with violence as a means of redressing wrong, and therefore he condemned the Whiteboys; and, in 1796, he urged his flock to resist the French, when Hoche's fleet was in Bantry Bay. Dr. Moylan had a share in the establishment of Maynooth College and was one of its first trustees. He also supported the Union, and was one of the bishops who agreed to the "veto" in 1799. He regretted, however, having done this, for he found that he had been tricked by Pitt and Castlereagh, and when the veto question was revived (1814) he opposed it. During his time in Cork, the Christian Brothers were introduced and also the Ur- suline and Presentation Nuns. He was indeed for many years the trusted friend and adviser of Nano Nagle.

Hutch, Life of Nano Nagle (Dublin, 1875).

E. A. D'Alton.

Moylan, Stephen, American patriot and mer- chant, b. in Ireland in 1734; d. at Philadelphia, 11 April, 1811. He received his education in Ireland, but resided for some time in England, and seems to have travelled considerably on the Continent before emigrating to the American Colonies where ho settled in the city of Philadelphia. He gave his hearty sup- port to the patriot cause on the eve of the Revolution, and, when war was finally declared, hurried to join the Continental Army before Boston in 1775. The readiness of his patriotic zeal, coupled with a belief in his business acumen, won him the recognition of John Dickinson, upon whose recommendation he was placed in the commissariat department. Attracted by his unusual dignity of bearing and military manner, Vi^ashington, in March, 1776, appointed him one of his aides-de-camp. Restless to exploit his energies in a field of wider activity, he was chosen by Con- gress, upon Washington's recommendation, in June of the same year to be Commissary General of the Continental Army. Restless again, seemingly, for a more direct participation in the conflict, he resigned this po.sition in the following October, raising at once a trooj) of light dragoons, the First Pennsylvania regi- ment of cavalry, of which he was colonel. With this troop he served at Valley Forge, through the dismal winter of 1777-8, at the battle of Gennantown, on the Hudson River, and in Connecticut, with Wayne in Pennsylvania, and rounded out the full measure of his service with General Greene in his soutluim campaign at the close of the war. In acknowledgment of his indefatigable energy and bravery, before the war closed, in 1782, he was brevetted brigadier-general. After the successful termination of the war he quietly