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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/675

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MOZARABIC


613


MOZARABIC


saints were said according; to the Mozarabic Rite in the six Mozarabic churclics of Toledo, and in that of Sts. Justa and Ruffina tlie Mozarabic feast of the Samaritan Woman (first Sunday in Lent) was also ob- served. Except for the Capilla Muzdrabe in the ca- thedral, all else was Roman. In 1553 Pope Julius III regulated mixed marriages between Mozarabic and RouKui Christians. The children were to follow the rite of the father, but, if the eldest daughter of a Mo- zarab marriei.1 a Roman, she and her husband might choose the rite to which she and her children should belong, and if she became a widow she might return to the Mozarabic Rite, if she had left it at her marriage. These rules are still in force, and the writer is informed by Dom Fcrotin that the present Mozdrabes are so proud of their distinctive rite, involving, as it does, pedigrees dating back to the eleventh century at least, that no Mozarabic heiress will ever consent to desert her own rite if she should marry a member of the Ro- man Rite. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centu- ries the Mozarabic Rite attracted some attention among the liturgical scholars of the period, and cer- tain dissertations were written and texts published, of which more will be said in the section on MSS. and edi- tions. In 1842 all the Mozarabic parishes in Toledo except two, Sts. Justa and Ruffina and St. Mark, were suppressed, and their parishioners, something under a thousand in number, were added to those of the two s\irviviiit; parishes. By the Concordat of 1851 the chaplains of the Capilla Muzdrabe were reduced from thirteen to eight, but the continuance of the above two parishes was provided for, and at that time the parochial Mass in these was always Mozarabic. It has alniiist entirely ceased to be so now, and it is only in the Capilla Muziirabein the cathedral and in the Ca- pilla dr Tahivera at Salamanca that the rite can be seen at present — in the former daily (in a High Mass at nine a.m.), and in the latter once or twice a year. Only the Missal and Breviary were published by Ximenes, and only four manuscripts of the " Liber Ordinum" (which contains the services of the Ritual and Pontifical) are known to exist. Hence it is that in all the sacraments except the Eucharist, and in all the occasional offices the Mozdrabes now follow the Roman Rite. One effect of the Mozarabic Rite yet remains in the cathe- dral services of the Roman Rite. According to Si- monet (Historia de los Mozdrabes de Espafla), the Canto MeUdico or Eugeniano, attributed to Eugenius II, Archbishop of Toledo (647-57), is still alternated with the Gregorian plain chant in all the Graduals of the Mass except on ferials, and certain hymns are still sung to the Eugenian melodies. When Jeronimo Ro- mero, choirmaster of Toledo cathedral, wrote his note on the Canto Meloiiico in Lorenzana's edition of the Mozarabic Breviary of 1775, it seems to have been still more extensively used, but in the specimens which he gives (the beginning of the Gradual for Sts. Peter and Paul) the lextus or canto firmo is only a variety of the ordinary plain chant, and the glossa duplex and gtossa simplex, which he calls "Eugenian", seem rather too modern counterpoints for the seventh century.

II. MSS. AND Editions. — Of the existing MSS. of the Mozarabic Rite many, as might be expected, are in the cathedral chapter library at Toledo, but until quite recent times the Benedictine Abbey of Silos, between thirty and forty miles to the south of Burgos, possessed nearly as many. Most of these are now elsewhere, some having been purchased in 1878 by the British Mu.seum, and others by the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale. There are other MSS. in the Royal Library, in the Library of the Royal Academy of History, and in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid, in the Cathedral Library at Leon, in the University Library at Santiago de Compostela, and in the chapter library at Verona. It will be seen from the list which follows that nearly aU the existing MSS.


come either from Toledo or from the neighbourhood of Burgos. There is also an interesting collection of transcripts, made from 17.52 to 17.56 under the direc- tion of the Jesuit Father, A. M. Burriel, from Toledo MSS. in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid. All the original MSS. are anterior to the conquest of Toledo in 1085, most of them being of the tenth or eleventh century. The arrangement of the books of that pe- riod was peculiar. The variable parts of the Mass and the Divine Office, whether sung by the choir or said by the celebrant or the deacon, were usually combined in one book, a sort of mixed sacramentary, anti- phonary, and lectionary, usually with musical neumes to the sung portions. Most of the MSS. are very imperfect, and it is not quite clear under what name this composite book was known. Probably it was called "Antiphonarium" or " Antiphonale". But such books existed also as antiphoners with choir parts only and sacramentaries with the priest's part only, and the usual modern practice is to call the composite books by the descriptive name of "Offices and Masses". They contain under each day the variables of Vespers and Matins and of the Mass. Sometimes one Mass is made fuller by the addition of some of the invariables, as a model of a complete Mass. The Missale Omnium Offerentium, the sep- arate book answering to the Ordinary of the Mass (see Secti(3n V, The Mass), does not exist in any early AIS., hut 'here is a Missa Onmimoda in the principal Silos MS. (if the "Liber Ordinum", which is a model Mass of the type found in that book. The book of "Offices and Masses" was supplemented for the Divine Office by the Psalter, which in its fullest form (as in the British Museum Add. MS. 30851) contained the whole book of Psalms, the Canticles, chiefly from the Old Testament, sixty-seven to a hundred in number, the Hymns for the year, and the "Horae Canonicae. " For the Mass it would seem to require no supplement, but the Prophecies, Epistles, and Gospels are found also in a separate book known as "Liber Comitis", "Liber Comicus" or "Comes". The Prayers of Vespers and Matins and the Prayers which follow the Gloria in Excelsis at Mass are also found combined in the "Liber Orationum", and the Homilies read at Mass are collected in the "Homi- liarum". though some are also given in the com- posite "Offices and Masses". The occasional ser- vices of the Ritual and Pontifical are found in the "Liber Ordinum", which contains also a number of Masses. There is one MS. (at Silos) which contains the Lessons of the now obsolete Nocturnal Office. The following are the MSS. of the several books: Offices and Masses. — (a) Toledo, Chapter Library,

35.4, eleventh century. Contains from Easter to the twentv-second Sunday after Pentecost. Belonged to the pari.sh of St. Olalla (Eulalia) at Toledo, (b)

35.5, tenth or eleventh century, 194 ff. Contains from the first Sunday of Lent to the third day of Easter week, (c) 3.5.6, eleventh century, 199 ff. Contains from Easter to Pentecost and feasts as far as SS. Just and Pastor (6 Aug.). (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, F. 190, tenth or eleventh cen- tury, 230 ff. Belonged to the Monastery of San Millan (St. ^mihanus) de la Cogolla in the Rioja. (e) Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, formerly at Toledo (35.2), eleventh century, 121 ff. Contains the Lenten Offices up to Palm Sunday. Colophon "Finitur (led gnilias hie liber per manus ferdinandi johannis Iircsliitcri cglesie sanctarum juste et rufine civitatis Tolcti in mcMse Aprilis." (f) Silos, eleventh century, paper octavo, 1.54 ff. (g) British Museum, Add. 30844, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for the Annunciation (18 Dec), St. Thomas, Christ- mas, St. Slcjihen, St. Eugenia (27 Dec), St. James the Less (28 Dec), St. James the Great (30 Dec, but called St. John), St. Columba (31 Dec), the Circum- cision, Epiphany, St. Peter's Chair (22 Feb.), the