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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/674

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MOZARABIC


612


MOZARABIC


Sr. Moraloda y E.stal):in says {El Rito Mozdrahe), tliR Words of Consecration to tlic Roman Use. This condition is still observed, but whether that has al- ways bef>n the ease since 924 or not, there is no evi- dence to show. The old Spanisli forimila is given in the modern books — "ne anti(|uilas ignorctur", iis Leslie says in his notes to the Mozarabic Missal — but the Roman is used in actual practice.

Of the existing manuscripts of the rite, though a very few may possibly be of the ninth century, al- most all are of dates between the ratification by John X and the introduction of the Roman Rite in the sec- ond half of the eleventh century, during which period the old Spanish Rite held luulisturbed possession of the whole of Spain, whether under Christian or Moor- ish rule. During thc^^e centuries the Christian king- doms were gradually driving back the Moors. Be- sides Asturias and Navarre, which had never been quite conquered, Galicia, Leon, and Old Castile had been regained, and the Kingdom of Aragon had been formed. In 1064 Cardinal Hugo Candidus was sent from Rome by Alexander II to abolish the Spanish Rite, some vague attempts in that direction having been already made by his predecessor Nicholas II, who had also wished to abolish the Ambrosian Rite at Milan. The centralizing policy of the popes of that period included uniformity of liturgical practice. The Spanish kings and clergy were against the change then, and Bishops Munio, of Calahorra, Eximino of Oca, and Fortunio of Alava were sent to Italy with Spanish ofhce-books, including a Liber Ordinum from Albelda, and a Breviary from Hirache, to defend the rite. The books were carefully examined by the Council of Mantua (1067), and were pronounced not only free from heresj' but also worthy of praise. But in Aragon King Sancho Ramirez was in favour of the change, and on 22 March, 1071, the first Roman Mass was sung in the presence of Cardinal Hugo Candidus and the king in the Monastery of San Juan de la Pena (near Jaca, at the foot of the Pyrenees, and the burial place of the early kings of Aragon). The Roman Rite was introduced into Navarre on the accession of San- cho of Aragon to the throne in 1074, and into Cata- lufia a Httle later. Meanwhile Alfonso VI became King of Castile and Leon, and St. Gregory VII be- came pope. Alfonso, influenced by the pope, by St. Hugh of Cluny, and by his first wife Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Gascony and Guienne and Count of Poitiers, introduced the Roman Rite into Castile and Leon in 1077. This was resisted by his subjects, and on Palm Sunday, 1077, according to the "Chroni- con Burgense", occurred the incident of "El Juicio de Dios". Two knights — "one a Castilian and the other a Toledan", says the chronicle — were chosen to fight "pro lege Romana et Toletana". The champion of the Spanish Rite, Juan Ruiz de Matanzas, who was the victor, was certainly a Castilian, but it is improb- able that the champion of the Roman Rite, whose name is not recorded, was a Toledan, and the Annals of Compostella say that one was a Castilian and the other of the king's party. The "Chronicon Mallea- cense", which alleges treachery, calls the latter "miles ex parte Francorum ", and at the later ordeal by fire in 1090 the Roman Rite is called impartially "romano", "frances", or "gallicano". It is said that two bulls, one named "Roma" and the other "Toledo", were set to fight, and there also the victory was with To- ledo.

But, in spite of the result of the trials by battle, Alfonso continued to support the Roman Rite, and a Council of Burgos (1080) decreed its use in Castile. In 1085 Toledo was taken and the question of rites arose again. The Mozarabic Christians, who had many churches in Toledo and no doubt in the country as well, resisted the change. This time another form of ordeal was tried. The two books were thrown into a fire. By the time the Roman book was consumed,


the Toledan was little damagetl. No one who has seen a Mozarabic manuscripl. wilh its exiraiirdinarily soliil vellum, will a(lii|)l any liyiiolliesis of Divine in- terposition here. Hut .slill the king, influenced now by his second wife Constance, daughter of Robert, Duke of Burgundy and son of King Robert (he Pious of France, and by Bernard, the new Archbishop of Toledo, a Cistercian, insisted on the introduction of the Roman Kite, though this time with a compromise. All new churches were to use the Roman Kite, but in the six old churches, Sts. Justa and Ruffina, St. Eula- lia, St. Sebastian, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. Torqua- tus, the Mozdrabes might continue to have their old rite, and might hand it on to their descendants. Flores mentions also the ErmitadeS. Maria deAlficen, which is probably the church of St. Mary which Neale says "disappeared, we know not how, some cen- turies ago." But the rite still continued in the Moor- ish dominions, as well as in certain monasteries, ap- parently, according to Rodrigo Ximenes, Archbishop of Toledo (1210-49), even in the Christian kingdoms.

When King James of Aragon conquered Valencia in 1238, he found there Mozarabic Christians using the old rite, and the same apparently happened when Murcia and all Andalusia except Granada were con- quered by Ferdinand III in 1235-51. When Ferdi- nand and Isabella took Granada in 1492, there were certainly some Mozarabic Christians there, as well as Christian merchants and prisoners from non-Moorish countries, but whether the Mozarabic Rite was used by them does not appear. With the discouragement which began with Alfonso VI came the period of deca- dence. The civil privileges (fueros) of the Toledo Mozdrabes, which, though in 1147 Pope Eugene III had definitely put them under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese, included a certain amount of in- dependence, were confirmed bv Alfonso VII in 1118, by Peter in 1350, by Henry Il'in 1379, and by Ferdi- nand and Isabella in 1480 (later also by Philip II in 1564, by Charies II in 1699, and by Philip V in 1740). But in spite of this the Roman Rite prevailed so much that it was introduced even into Mozarabic churches, which only used the old rite for certain special days, and that in a corrupted form from old and imperfectly understood MSS. This and the dying out of many Mozarabic families gradually brought the rite very low. There was a spasmodic attempt at a revival, when in 1436 Juan de Todesillas, Bishop of Segovia, founded the college of Aniago (originally a Benedic- tine house, a little to the south-west of Valladolid), where the priests were to use the Gothic Rite. The foundation lasted five years and then became Carthu- sian. Thus, when Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros became Archbishop of Toledo in 1495, he found the Mo- zarabic Rite in a fair way to become extinct. He em- ployed the learned .Vlfonso Ortiz and three Mozarabic priests, Alfonso Martinez, parish priest of St. Eulalia, Antonio Rodriguez of Sts. Justa and Ruffina, and Jer- onymo Guttierez of St. Luke, to prepare an edition of the Mozarabic Missal, which appeared in 1500, and of the Breviary, which ajipeared in 1502. He founded the Mozarabic Chapel in Toledo cathedral, with an endowment for thirteen chaplains, a sacristan and two mozos sirvientes, and with provision for a sung Mass and the Divine Office daily. Soon afterwards, in 1517, Rodrigo Arias Maldonado de Talavera founded the Capilla de San Salvador, or de Talavera, in the Old Cathedral of Salamanca, where fifty-five Mozara- bic Masses were to be said yearly. They were later reduced to six, and now the rite is used there only once or twice a year.

When the church of St. Mary Magdalene at Valla- dolid was founded by Pedro de la Gasca in 1567, an ar- rangement was made for two Mozarabic Masses to be said there every month. This foundation was in ex- istence when Florez wrote of it in 1748, but is now ex- tinct. At that time also the offices of the titular