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Xiinpnps had the Missal and Breviary printed, there wajn evidently no need to print a Ritual and Pontifical, as they were probalily no longer used. Of the elev- enth eentury M8S. of the Lihir (h-dinuni published by Dom Fi^rotin, one (the Silos MSS. of 10r)2) contains a very comoletc set of occasional ser\'ices. They con- sist of: (l') The Hlessing of Oil, Salt, and Water; (2) Baptism; (^5) Ordinations; (4) The Unction and Visi- tation of the Sick; (5) The Blessing of Virgins, Ab- besses, Widows, and Coiivrrsi: ((>) The Order of Pen- ance and Reconciliation of heretics and schismatics and for the conversion of Jews; (7) The Order of Deatli and Burial; (8) Ritu.i pro liege obsermndus; (9) Various Blessings; (10) Orders for Holy Week and Easter; (11) The Oriler of Matrimony. These are fol- lowed by a large ninnber of Masses, chiefly votive. Of these services the following may be noted: —

(\) Baptii<m. — The order is: — (a) Insufflation. The priest breathes thrice, with the words "Exorcizo te immunde spiritus hostishumani generis", (b) Insig- nation. The sign of the Cross on the forehead, and exorcism towards the west, (c) Unction with oil on mouth and cars, with Effeta, effeta cum sancto spiritu in odorem suavitatis. Bene omnia fecit et surdos fecit audire ct mutos loqui". (d) Imposition of hands, (e) Tradilio syrnboli. (f) Blessing of the font preceded by exorcism, (g) Interrogations and Renunciations, (h) Baptism, with "Ego te baptizo m Nomine etc., ut habeas vitam a^ternam." (i) Chris- mation on forehead, with "Signum vitiE feternae quod dedit Deus Pater Omnipotens per Jesum Christum Filium suum credentibus in salutem." (k) Imposi- tion of hands, with prayer. (1) "Post ha-c velantur a saoerdote infantes qui baptizati sunt caput: quo peracto communicat eos" (i. e. the Vesting and Com- munion). On the third day the children are brought to the priest, who says over them the " Benedietio de Albis". Except in the of converts from Arian- ism, no separate oriler of Confirmation is given. The Chrismation and Imposition of hands after Baptism, followed as it by Communion, was evidently the only normal form of Confirmation. In the case of Arian converts the words are:"Et ego te chrismoin Nomine etc., in remissionem omnium peccatorum ut habeas vitam a?ternam", followed by the imposition of hands and a prayer. The ceremony of feet -washing, retained in the Celtic and GalUcan Baptisms, does not appear in the Spanish Liher Ordinum, though mentioned by the Council of Elvira in 305 (see G.^llican Rite).

(2) Ordinations. — The minor ordinations are those of clericus, sacrista, and cuslos librorum. These or- ders are preceded by "Oratio super eum qui capillos in sola fronte tondere \'ult" — which looks like a relic of the Celtic tonsure (see Celtic Rite), but, as Dom Ferotin conjectures, is probably of the nature of an offering "des premisses de la chevelure" (cf. the Tptxo^oi'P'i, seven days after Baptism, in the Byzan- tine Rite) — by "Oratio super parvulum quern par- entes ad doctrinam offerunt" and " Benedietio super parvulum qui in ecclesia ad ministerium Dei detondi- tur". The "clericus" of the next section is evidently also "parvulus". The sacrista has a ring given to him with the words: "Esto ianitor adituum ct praepositus ostiariorura". The custos librorum receives "anuluni de scriniis", and is also appointed "senior scribarum". Then follows a curious "Ordo super eum qui barbam tangere cupit". The priest takes wax from a taper and puts a crumb of it on the right, left, and middle of the chin. Prayers are said alluding to the anointing of Aaron's beard. Then "Ista explicita intromittit iu anulo barbam cum cera et in anulo barbam et ceram capulat qui barbam tangit dicens, In Nomine etc. et accipit in linteo nitido. Peracta ista omnia absolvit diaconus dicens, Missa acta est. Et post ha;c si est monachus radit barbam". The ordinations of sub- deacon, deacon, archdeacon, priest, archpriest, and abbot are very simple. To the subdeacon is given by

the archdeacon the "ministerium ad manuslavandos" and a chalice and paten. The bishop gives him the book of St. Paul's Epistles. The bishop ijuts the stole {ora- riiini) on the left shoulder of a deacon, and delivers a " f erida " t o an archdeacon and archpriest, a "manuale " (book of sacraments) to a priest, and a staff and book of the Rule to an abbot. In each case these are ac- comiiaiiicd by prayers, and a confirmatio addressed to the newly ordained, which is more or less an explana- tion of his dul ies and status. In the case of a priest the assistant priests are directed to lay their hands on him as, vested in stole and chasuble, he kneels before the altar, and, though there is no direction for the bishop to do so, it is evident from the wording of his "Bene- dietio" that he lays his hands on him also. There is no order given for the consecration of a bishop. The blessings of nuns and other religious are quite simple, veiling with prayer and benediction, and for an abbess the delivery of a staff and the putting on of a mitre.

(3) The Unction of the Sick is given together with an order for the blessing of the unguent. This was done on the Feast of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, the physician- martyrs (27 Sept.), not, as elsewhere in the West, on Maundy Thursday. "The bishop makes a cross (a cross pattee with a pendant and the A and fl is figured in the book) with a qraphium (style), saying an anti- phon "Sicut unguentum in capite etc.", and a prayer and benediction, both referring to the healing of the sick. The Unction of the sick was on the head only, with the sign of the Cross and the words "In Nomine Patris etc." Antiphons referring to sickness and its healing are then said. There is provision for anoint- ing many sick persons at the same time.

The rest of the occasional services do not call for much remark. They are for the most part very sim- ple blessings and prayers, not unlike those found in the Roman Ritual. They include, however, a few of a type found also in the Cireek Euchologion for the cleansing of any polluted person, place, or thing, e. g. "super his qui morticinum comedunt vel suffocatum", "super vas in quo (sic) aliquid immundum ceciderit", etc., and the Orders when the king goes out to battle with his army, and when he returns, have a consider- able historical interest.

PiNlus, De Liiurgia Antiqua Hispatiica in Acta SS., July, VI, 1-112, reprinted in Bianehini'a edition of Tbomasius; Thoma- 8IUS, Opera omnia, ed. Bianchini, I (Rome, 1741); Florez, Espaaa Sagrada (Madrid, 1748) ; Ferotin, Liber Ordinum in Cabrol and Leclercq, Monum. Eccles, Liturg., V (Paris, 1904); FiROTiN, Hist, de V Abbaye de Silos (Paris, 1897); Idem, Deux Manuscrits wisigoitiiques de la Bibliothkque de Ferdinand I m Revue de VEcole de Ctiartes, LXII (1901); P. L.: vol. LXXXIII, St. Isidore; vol. LXXXV, Mozarabic Missal, ed. Leslie; vol. LXXXVI, Mozarabic Breviary, ed. Lorenzana; vol. XCVI. ,St. Ildefonsus and St. Julian op Toledo; Mo- RALEDA T Estaban, El RHo Mozdrobc (Toledo, 1857) ; Hernan- dez DE ViERA, Rubricas generates de la Misa Gotftica Muzdrabe (Salamanca, 1772); Perez. Devocionario Muzdrabe (Toledo. 1903); Neale, Ttie Mozarabic Liturgy in his Essays on Liturgi- ology (London. 1863); W. C. Bishop, The Mozarabic Rite in CliuTcli Quarterly (Oct., 1906; Jan., 1907); SiMONET, Historia de los Mozdrabes in Memorias de la Real Academia de la Historia, XIII (Madrid, 1903); Buldu, Historia de la Iglesia de Espa-ha (Barcelona. 1856-7); Parro, Toledo en la mano (Toledo, 1857); Gamero, Historia de la ciudad de Toledo (Toledo, 1862); Pisa. Descripcion de la imperial ciudad de Toledo (Toledo, 1605); BuRRlEL, Correspondencia, etc. in vol. XIII (1848) of Fernan- dez DE Navarrette, etc., Coteccidn de documentos inMitos para ta fiistoria de EspaOa (Madrid, 1842 — ); Idem, Pateografta es- paflola (Madrid, 1758); Eouhen, Memoria descripliva de los cddices notables conservados en los archives eclesidsticos de Es~ pafia (Madrid, 1859): RiaSez, Critical and bibtiograpfiical notes on early Spanish music (London, 1887); Ewald and Loewe, Exempla scriptura Visigotica (Heidelberg, 1883); Beer, H andschriftenschdtze Spaniens in Sitzungsberichte, Phitoso' phisch-Historische Classe der tcaisert. Akad. der Wissenschaften Wiens. CXXI-CXXIV; AnDRY, Iter Hispanicum (Paris, 1908); Duchesne, Origines du culte chritien (Paris, 1902; tr. Lon- don, 1904); Probst, Die abendland. Messe vom fan/ten bis zum acfiten Jahrh. (Munster, 1896); Mabillon, De Liturg. Gallicana (Paris, 1685); Muratori, Liturgia Romana Vetus (Venice, 1748); Neale and Forbes, Ancient Liturgy of the Gatlican Church (Burntisland, 1855-67); Lucas, Early Gal- Ucan Liturgies in Dublin Review (July, 1893; Jan., 1894); Moyeb. Mozarabic Rite and Anglican Orders in The Tablet (15. 22, 29 Jan., 1910), 86-8, 123-4, 163-5: Hammond, Ancient Liturgies (Oxford. 1878); Baijmeb, Gesch. des Breviers (Frei-