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MOZETENA


624


MRAK


count of their melodic beauty and truth of expression, have as strong a hold upon the affections of the musi- cal public to-tlay as they did at the end of the eigh- teenth century. His instrumental works continue to delight musicians the world over. As a composer for the Church, however, he does not, even artistically, reach the high level he maintained in other fields. In his day the music of the Church, Gregorian chant, was practically ignored in Germany, and sadly neglected in other countries. Mozart had but little knowledge of the masters of the sixteenth century, and conse- quently his style of writing for the Church could not have been influenced by them. The proper of the Mass, which brings singers and congregation in inti- mate touch with the liturgy of the particular day, was rarely sung. The fifteen masses, litanies, offertories, his great "Requiem", as well as many smaller set- tings, most of them written for soli, chorus, and or- chestra, in the identical style of his secular works, do not reflect the spirit of the universal Church, but rather the subjective conception and mood of the composer and the Josephinist spirit of the age. What Mozart, with his Raphaelesque imagination and temperament, would have been for church music had he lived at a different time and in different sur- roundings, or risen above his own, can easily be imagined.

Jahn, W. a. Mozart, tr. Townsend (London, 1882); Nohl, Mozart's Leben, tr. Lalor (Chicago, 1893); Nottebohm, Mozart- iana (1880): Kochel, Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sammllicher Tonwerke W. A. Mozart's (Leipzig, 1862-18S9); Meinahdus, Mozart ein KUnstlerleben (Leipzig, 1SS2).

Joseph Otten.

Mozetena Indians. — A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of the Beni river. Department of Beni, in north-western Bolivia. Among their peculiar customs is the cmwade. In the early part of the eighteenth century, through the efforts of the Jesuits, a part of them were Christianized. They now number about 1300, and are living in three mission towns, viz., Mu- chanes (founded 1725), Santa Ana, and Magdalena, all on the Beni river, near the confluence of the Mapisi.

Brinton, American Race (New York, 1,S91); He.4TH in Kansas City Review of Science. VI (Kansas City, 1883); Weddell, Voyage dans le Nord de la Bolivie (Paris, 1853).

James Mooney.

Mozzetta, a short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open front, which may be fastened by means of a row of small buttons; at the neck it has a very small and purely ornamental hood. The privilege of wearing the mozzetta belongs properly to no one but the pope, cardinals, exempt abbots, abbots general, and the four prelates di fiochdti; only through a special privilege may it be worn by other ecclesias- tics, abbots, canons, etc. Cardinals wear the mozzetta over the mantelletta, but bishops wear it without the mantelletta; the latter, however, may wear the mozzetta only within their own jurisdiction, outside of which the mantelletta must be worn instead of the mozzetta. Canons who have the privilege of wearing the mozzetta may not use it outside of the church, save when the chapter appears in corpore (as a cor- porate body). The pope's mozzetta is always red, except that, in Easter week, he wears a white one. As regards material, his mozzetta during the winter half-year, that is, from the feast of St. Catherine to Ascension Day, is made of velvet or of cloth accord- ing to the character of the day or ceremony; in the summer half-year it is made of satin or fine wool- len material (merino). It is edged with ermine only in the winter half-year. A cardinal's mozzetta is generally red; the colour is pink on Gaudele and Lulare Sundays, and violet in penitential seasons and for mourning. According to the time of year, it is made of silk or wool. \Mien worn by bishops, prelates, canons, etc., the mozzetta is violet or black


in colour: the material for these dignitaries is properly not silk but wool (camlet). Cardinals and bishops who belong to ai\ order wearing a distinctive religious habit (e. g. the Benedictines, Dominicans, etc.) retain for the mozzct ta the colour of the outer garment of the habit of the respective order. This also applies to abbots and Reformed Augustinian canons who have the privilege of wearing the mozzet ta. The mozzetta is not a liturgical vestment, consequently, for example, it cannot be worn at the administration of the sacra^ ments. Sometimes it is traced back to the cappa, this making it merely a shortened cappa; sometimes to the almutia. From which of the two it is derived, is uncertain. The name mozzetta permits both deri- vations. In all probability the garment did not come into use until the latter Middle Ages. It was cer- tainly worn in the latter half of the fifteenth century, as is proved by the fresco of Mclozzo da Forli [lainted in 1477: "Sixtus IV giving the Custody of the Vatican Library to Platina". From the beginning the mozzetta has been a garment distinctive of the higher ecclesiastical dignitaries, the pope, cardinals, and bishops. (See Hood.)

Braun. Die liturg. Gewandung im Occident u. Orient (Freiburg, 1907), 357 sq.; Barrier de Montault, Traite pratique de la con^ siruction des iglises. II (Paris, 1S7S), 506, 619. 541, 561; Caremon.


epii^e., I,


Joseph Bratjn.


Mozzi, LuiGi, controversialist, b. at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; d. near Milan, 24 June, 1813. He en- tered the Society of Jesus in 1763, and on its suppres- sion was received into the Diocese of Bergamo, where he was shortly made a canon, and appointed arch- priest and examiner of candidates for the priesthood. The zeal and ability with which he opposed the prog- ress of Jansenism in Italy gained him a well-merited reputation, and Pius VI called him to Rome, where he became an Apostolic missionary. He was elected a member of the Accademia degli Arcadi (see Academ- ies, Roman). In 1S04 he hastened to rejoin the Soci- ety, which had been restored in Naples. Worn out at length by his charitable labours and penitential prac- tices, he retired to the residence of M;iic|uis Scot ti near Milan, where he died. Among his impml ant writings are: "VeraideadelGiansenismo" (17.S1) ; "Storiacom- pendiosa della scisma della nuova chiesa d'Utrecht" (Ferrara, 178.5) ; " Storia dclle revoluzioni della Chiesa d'Utrecht" (Venice, 1787) ; "Compendio storico-crono- logico . . . sopra il Baianismo, Giansenismo e Ques- nellismo" (Foligno, 1792), all against Jansenism; "II falso discepolo di S. Agost ino e di S. Tommaso" (Venice, 1779), adefenceof Molinism. He translated from the English the Duke of Brunswick's "Fifty Reasons for preferring the Roman Catholic Religion" (Bassano, 1789); and from the French, " Les projets des incr6- dules pour la ruine de la religion, devoiles dans les oeuvres de Frdderic, roi de Prusse" (Assisi, 1791). Hurter, Nomenclator, III, 540; Vita del P. L. Mozzi (Novara,

'^2^^- A. A. MacErlean.

Mrak, Ignatius, second Bishop of Marquette, U. S. A., b. 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of Laibach (Carinthia), Austria; d. at Mar- quette, 2 Jan., 1901. He made his classical studies in the gymnasium of Laibach and his theology in the local diocesan seminary. On 13 August, 1837, Prince-Bishop Anton Aloys Wolf raised him to the priesthood. To qualify for a tutorship in the house of Field-Marshal Baron Peter Pirquet, the young priest passed a rigorous state examination, and so- journed two years at Legnago near Verona, Italy, then an Austrian possession. In 1840 he returned to his native diocese, and occupied several positions as assistant before emigrating to the United States five years later. Bishop Lefebre of Detroit received him cordially, and sent him immediately to Arbre Croche to assist the celebrated Indian missionaiy, Father Francis Pierz. For two years the missionaries