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worked fruitfully together, and, when in 1851 Pierz removed to Minnesota, Mrak retained charge of the Indian mission. For his devotion to the red race Baraga appointed him his vicar-general, and upon the death of Baraga he was created second Bishop of Marquette. For a long time he refused to accept, but, finally yielding to the urgency of Archbishop Purcell, he was consecrated at Cincinnati on 9 February, 1S69. After ten years' devotion to the administration of the diocese, although he was not unaccustomed to hardships, his health began to fail, and he was permitted to resign in 1879, and was made titular Bishop of Antinoe. For some years he re- mained with his successor. Bishop \'ertin, and, when necessity required, (performed the duties of an ordi- nary pastor. With the return of his health, his love for f he Indians awoke, and he returned to (he Indian mis- sions, which he had left so reluctantly to accept the epis- copate. Bishop liicliter of Grand l;;i|>ids most cor- dially welcomed him, and at his own request gave him the Indian mission at Eagle Town, Leeland County. Here he lived a simple life sharing his small annuity of eight hundred dollars with the two Dominican Sis- ters whom he had induced to open a school for his charges. In his eighty-first year he retired to Mar- quette, and filled thenceforth a chaplaincy at St. Mary's Hospital to the last day of his life. His charity was as proverbial as his humility. He outlived his successor in the episcopate, and saw the election of the fourth bishop, whom he himself had raised to the priesthood. His body rests in the vault under the cathedral be- side those of his predecessors, Baraga and Vertin.

Rezek, History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette (Houghton. Michigan, 1906) ; Verwtst, Life of Bishop Baraga (Milwaukee, 1900) ; Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung im Kaiser- Ihume Oesterreich (Vienna, 1832-65); Diocesan Archives (Mar- quette).

Antoine Ivan Rezek.

Muchar, Albert Anton von, historian, b. at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; d. at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849. He was descended from the noble and ancient family of the Muchars of Bied and Rangfeld, studied at the lyceum in Graz, entered the Benedictine Order, and made his vows on 16 Oct., 1808, at Admont. Or- dained a priest shortly afterwards, he devoted him- self entirely to the study of the oriental languages, became librarian and keeper of the archives in 1813, and later on professor of Greek and Oriental languages at the theological school of his monastery. From 1823 to 1825 he was supplementary professor of Bib- lical science, becoming afterwards professor of ses- thetics and classical philology at the University of Graz. Pure philological studies, however, did not suit his taste, and in this branch we possess from him only a somewhat mediocre edition of Horace with German translation, which appeared in 1835 at Graz. His researches dealt chiefly with the history of Austria, for which purpose he made extensive visits to the libraries of Austria, Bavaria, and Upper X.— 40

Italy; thus, nearly all his historical works are based upon careful examination of the original sources. In 1829 the Academy of Sciences in Vienna elected him a member in recognition of his important con- tributions to national history, and he was one of the founders of the Historical Society for Inner Austria. Of his more important works may be mentioned: "Das romische Norikum" (2 vols., Graz, 1825-6); "Geschichte des Herzogtums Steiermark" (Graz, 1845-74) in nine volumes, of which the first four were edited by himself, the following two by his colleagues, Prangner and von Grafenstein, and the last three by the Historical Society of Styria. Beside this he wrote numerous excellent essays for historical period- icals, e. g. Hormayr's "Archiv", the " Steiermarkische Zeitschrift", and the "Archiv fur Kunde osterreich- ischer Gesehichtsquellen" (in which he published his valuable " Urkundenregesten fiir die Geschichte In- nerosterreichs vom Jahre 1312-1500" (Vienna, 1849). The library of Admont possesses in manuscripts some still more extensive works, which show Muchar's great diligence as a compiler.

Ilwolf, Albert von Muchar in Mitteil. des histo. Vereins Steier- mark, fa-sc. xiv (Graz, 1866); Allg. Deutsche Biogr., XXII (Leipzig, 1883), 436-8.

Patricius Schlager.

Muhlbacher, Engelbert, historian, b. at Gresten, Austria, 4 Oct., 1843; d. at Vienna, 17 July, 1903. He received his classical education at Vienna, his father's native city. In 1862 he became a novice among the Austin Canons at St. Florian. After completing his theological studies there, he was ordained priest in 1867. As Arneth relates in his memoirs, historical studies had been successfully cultivated at St. Florian's since Provost Arneth's time, and Miihl- bacher was soon active in this domain. Among his writings are articles on St. Florian's Gerhoh von Reichersberg, and the literary productions of St. Florian's. In 1872 we find Muhlbacher studying under Julius Ficker at Innsbruck, where after two years he received the degree of Doctor of Theology. He then hastened to Vienna to finish his historical training under Sickel's guidance. When Ficker en- trusted the youthful scholar with the revision of the Carlovingian period of Bbhmer's "Regesta", he was directing him to a domain in which he was to do im- perishable work. In 1878 he was formally received as academical lecturer into the philosophical faculty of the University of Innsbruck, and between 1880 and 1889 published his masterly edition of the imperial "Regesta" of the Carlovingian period. As Redlich says, "the technique of compiling regcsla received exemplary development at Miihlbacher's hands, and his work served as a model for the entire new edition of the imperial "Regesta". In 1892 Miihlbacher was entrusted with the editing of the Carlovingian documents for the "Monumenta Germania; Hi-stor- ica". At the same time it became necessary to bring out a new edition of his Carlovingian "Regesta". The two works proved of mutual assistance, and Miihlbacher devoted the greatest care and diligence to his tasks. He was able to see only the first part of each work through the press, but left considerable material for the use of his successors. No other German scholar was so well qualified to write the "Deutsche Geschichte unter den Karolingern", v/hich appeared in 1896. Since 1879 Muhlbacher edited the "Mitteilungen des Instituts fiir oster- reichische Geschichtsforschung". In 1881 he was appointed extraordinary, and in 1896 ordinary professor at Vienna. In 1895 Ficker turned over to him the management of the "Rege^sta Imperii". With the utmost energy he took in hand the arrange- ment of the Austrian State Archives, and the prepara- tion of the more recent history of Austria. His learning and efforts did not fail to receive due recog- nition. He was chosen an active member of the