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Ini[)orial Acadpiny of Sciences in Vienna. Miihl- bacher's unwearying labours continu(>(l until his all too earlv death.

KEDLiril. Obilimr; in ^Ulleil. fles Iiislilutea far dslerr. Ge- schichu^/orfchuiiii. X.XV (Innsbruck, 1904). 201-7, with portrait. C. WOLFSGRUBER.

Muldoon, Peter Ja.mes. See Rockford, Dio- cese OF.

Mulhall, Michael George, statistician, b. in Dub- lin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec, 1900. He was educated at the Irish College, Rome. Going to Buenos Aires he established there in 1861 the "Standard", the first paper in English published in South America. In 1869 he brought out " The Hand- book of the River Plate", the first English book printed in Argentina. This was followed bj' his "Progress of the World" (1880); "Balance Sheet of the World, 1873-1880" (1881); "Dictionary of Statistics" (1883), a standard work of reference, few modern compilations having been more extensively used; "History of Prices since 18.50" (1885). In 1896 he travelled extensively in Europe collecting material for the Committee of the English Parlia- ment reporting on a proposed department of agricul- ture for Ireland. The pope decorated him in recogni- tion of his literary work, in which his wife, Marion McMurrough Mulhall, who has also written exten- sively, was his active and practical assistant.

Tablet (London. 22 Dec. 1900).

Thomas F. Meehan.

Mulholland, St. Clair Adgdstine, soldier, b. at Lisburn, Co. Antrim, Ireland, 1 April, 1839; d. at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910. Emigrating to Phila- delphia with his parents while a boy, his youthful ta-stes inclined him to military affairs and he became active in the ranks of the militia. At the breaking out of the Civil War he was commissioned Lieutenant- Colonel of the 116th Pennsylvania Volunteers which was attached to Meagher's Irish Brigade, and later was made its colonel. He was wounded during the famous charge of the Irish Brigade up Marye's Heights, at the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 Dec,

1862, At the battle of Chancellorsville, 3, 4 May,

1863, he led his regiment and distinguished himself by saving the guns of the Fifth Maine Battery that had been abandoned to the enemy. For this he Wiis complimented in general orders and received the Medal of Honor from Congress. In this campaign he was given the command of the picket-line by General Hancock and covered the retreat of the Army of the Potomac across the Rappahannock. At Get- tysburg his own regiment was so badly cut up in the first day's fight, that he changed to the 140th Penn. Volunteers and led it into action. He was wounded a second time at the battle of the Wilderness, 5 May,

1864, and for his gallant conduct was brevetted brigadier-general. At Po River he was wounded a third time but remained in hospital only ten days, and resuming his command was dangerously wounded again at Tolpotomoy. He recovered rapidly and commanded his brigade in all the actions around Petersburg, particularly distinguishing himself by storming a fort for which he was brevetted major- general 27 October, 1864. Returning to civil life after the war he w;us appointed Chief of Police in Philadelphia in 1868, and signalized his administra- tion by the good order in which he kept both the force and the city. President Cleveland appointed him United States Pension Agent, in which office he was continued by Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt. He was considered an authority on the science of penol- ogy, and also devoted much of his leisure time to art studies, and as a lecturer and writer on the Civil War and its records. He compiled a history of the 116th Regiment of Pennsylvania V'olunteers, and an- other of those to whom Congress voted the Medal

of Honor. In the Catholic affairs of Philadelphia he was always active and a leader among the best known and most icspiTlcd laymen.

CoNYHOUAM, Tfir Iri^ti Hm/inl' mi'l Us Campnif/ns (Boston, 1869); Ameriai (\.w V,,rk, 2(i IVI.., 1910), files; Calh. tftandard and Times (Philadelpliiii, 2t) Keb., 1910), files.

Thomas F. Meehan.

MuUanphy, John, merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, Missouri, U. S. A., 29 August, 1833. At twenty he went to France where he served in the Irish Brigade until the Revolution drove him back to Ireland. In 1792 \vith his w'ife and child he emigrated to Pliiladelpliia, thence going to Baltimore where he reiiuiiTied until 1799. He next went to Kentucky where he opened a store at Frankfort, l:>ut left there in 1S04, and settled finally in St. Louis, then a French settlement. His enterprise in business brought him large returns which he invested in real estate. He was in Baltimore during the War of 1812 with England, and took part in its defence, and later was with Jackson in 1815 at the battle of New Orleans. His business instinct prompted him to then buy a large quantity of cotton at low rates, which the ending of the war enabled him to sell at an immense profit. He had fifteen children, and spent his last years in di.spens- iuf; much of his great fortune in charity. In 1827 he e.stalUished the St. Louis Convent of the Rehgious of the Sacred Heart, the second in the LTnited States. The following year he gave a hospital to the Sisters of Charity. A church, the Jesuit novitiate, and a con- vent for the Sisters of Loretto at Florisant, were also his gifts, and when he died 25,000 dollars was left in his will for education and charity. His children con- tinued his lienefactions. His only son Bryan, who died in 1S51, a bachelor, lived an eccentric life. He was mayor of St. Louis in 1847, antl for four years judge of the County Court. His will left one third of his estate (al)out 200,000 dollars) as a trust fund " to furnish relief to all poor emigrants passing through St. Louis to .settle in the West". Changed conditions have frustrated that intention, and it is now devoted to charity. John .MuUanpliy's name is perpetuated in St. Louis" liy the hospital au<l orphan asylum so desig- nated, and the name of his daughter, Mrs. Ann Biddle, is preserved in the Biddle Home and St. Ann's Found- ling Asylum which she founded.

The Messenger (Now York, Julv, 1908); Church Pronress (St. Louis, February. March, 1906), files; Darby, Recollections of St. Louis (.St. Louis): BnAfKENRlDGE, Recollections of Persons and Places in the West (1834); Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis.

Thomas F. Meehan.

Miiller, Adam Heinrich, publicist and political economist, convert, b. at Berlin, 30 June, 1779; d. at Vienna, 17 Jan., 1829. It was intended that he should study Protestant theology, but from 1798 he devoted himself in Gottingen to the study of law, philosophy, and natural science. Returning to Ber- lin, he was persuaded by his friend Cientz to take up political science. After working for some time as referendary in the Kurmarkische Kammer in Berlin, he travelled in Sweden and Denmark, spent about two years in Poland, and then went to Vienna, where he was converted to the Catholic Faith on 30 April, 1805. From ISOli to ISO!) lie HvimI at Dresden as tutor of a prince of the Saxi-Wciiiiar family and lecturer on German literature, dramatic art, and political science. In 1808 he edited with Heinrich von K'leist the peri- odical "Pha>bus". In 1809 he rdurncd to Berlin, and in 1811 to Vienna, where he lived in the house of Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Estc and became the friend of Clement Maria HofTbauer. In 1813 he was appointed imperial commissioner and major of the rifle-corps in Tyrol, and took part in the wars for lib- erty and later on, as counsellor of the government, in the reorganization of the country. In 1815 he was