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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/693

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Munich- Freising, Archdiocese of (Monacen- sis ET FiiisiNciENsis), in Bavaria. — This archdiocese originated in tin- ancient Diocese of Freising. The Church of Freising dates back to St. Corbinian, who, after his consecration, came in 716 to organize the Church in Bavaria. On a mountain near Freising the saint erected a Benedictine monastery and a school. He was succeeded in the government of the abbey by his brother Erembert. When St. Boniface in 738 reguhited ecclesiastical affairs in Bavaria by the crea- tion of four dioceses, Erembert was chosen first Bishop of Freising, which see was made suffragan to Mainz. The sanctuary of Our Lady, which existed on the mountain near Freising before the coming of St. Cor- binian, became the cathedral, and was served by the Benedictine monks. At the time the diocese em- braced the country of the Upper Isar as far east as the Inn and south to the watershed of the Inn and the Isar. The third bishop, Joseph of Verona (747-64), established a collegiate church in Isen, and shared in the founding of the convents of Schiiftlarn and Scharnitz, placing the government of the latter in the hands of Abbot At to. The last-named foundation was particularly significant, in view of the later acquisitions of the diocese in the Pustertal.

Other important convents of the diocese were Te- gernsee, Moosburg, Ilmmiinster, Altomiinster, Schli- ersee, and Rot-on-the-Inn. The learned Aribo, or Arbeo (764-84), the biographer of St. Corbinian, translated the remains of this saint from Mais to Freising and interred them in the Sepulchrum Corbini- ani which he had built (765-68) in the church of Our Lady. During his episcopate, Duke Tassilo II pre- sented Innichen to the Abbot of Scharnitz. With the newly acquired territory, Freising gained a port of entry into Carinthia, and the diocese soon acquired possessions also in Styria and Carniola. Atto, Abbot of Scharnitz, also Archbishop of Freising (784-810), zealously undertook the task of Christianizing the Slavs of the Pustertal. On the summit of the moun- tain upon which Freising cathedral stood he erected a second Benedictine monastery under the same govern- ment as the first. During his time the diocese was made suffragan to Salzburg. Hitto (811-34) made a visitation of his diocese; he installed a provost and six secular canons in the church on the mountain Weihenstephan near Freising.

During the episcopate of his successor Erchambert (835-54), a deed of gift for the first time mentions cathedral canons, who were not monks (842 and 845), the cathedral chapter being thereafter composed of monks and canons. Under BLshops Anno (855-75), Arnold (875-83), and Waldo (883-903), brother of Bishop Salomo of Constance, the monastic element in the cathedral chapter gradually withdrew; the Bene- dictines of the cathedral mountain scrm to have aban- doned it and to have established tlicniselves at the foot of the Weihenstephan. Waldo rebuilt the cathe- dral, which had been burned down; he was given juris- diction over the neighbouring Abbey of Moosburg, and received from Louis the Child in 906 the right of free choice of bishops for the cathedral chapter.

The Hungarians gained an entry into Bavaria and destroyed almost entirely the spiritual life of the coun- try. Bishop Utto fell in a battle against them in 908. Under St. Lantpert (938-57), Freising was set on fire by the Hungarians and almost entirely destroyed. After the victory of Otto I at Lechfeld, peace came again to the city, and the Church of Freising, under the guidance of competent rulers, rose from its ruins, and acquired new possessions. Abraham, of the race of the counts of Gorz (956-94), obtained for his dio- cese from the Emperor Otto II (973) extensive posses- sions in Carniola. Gottschalk, Knight of Ilagenau (994-1006), obtained for Freising a coinage, the privi- lege of holding fairs, and civic rights; and Kgilbert of Moosburg (1006-39), the founder of the Benedictine

Abbey of Weihenstephan, which replaced the old con- vent of the canons, was the recipient of additional lands in Upper Carniola. In Austria and in the Tyrol the colonies founded from the diocese were remark- ably successful in development and stability. During the disturbances resulting from the conflict of investi- tures, Ellenhard, Count of Meran (1052-78), was ever to be found on the side of Henry IV, who repeatedly visited the bishop in Freising; Meginhard, Count of Scheyern (1078-98), who distinguished himself by spreading the Christian doctrine in Bohemia, was more favourable to the pope; Heinrich I, of Ebersdorf (1098-1137), was in his turn an adherent of the em- peror. Heinrich I lived to see the destruction of Freising by Duke Welf, and, when dying, bequeathed his possessions to the diocese.

He was succeeded by the most distinguished bishop, Otto I (1137-58), the historian and philosopher. He saved the see from the ruin which threatened it, re- established many monasteries, and delivered the dio- cese from the oppressive jurisdieliun of the counts of Scheyern. A Cistercian himself, he once more estab- lished monastic discipline and austerity. In the last years of his administration occurred the destruction of the episcopal bridge, custom houses, mint, and salt works near Oberfohring by Duke Henry the Lion, who transferred the custom houses and bridge site to the upper part of Oberfohring, placing them in the vil- lage of Munich on the Isar. Albert I (11.58-84) brought the diocese safely through the conflicts of Barbarossa with the pope; he rebuilt the cathedral, which had been burned down in 1 169, making it larger and more magnificent; his successor Otto II (1184- 1220) completed the work, the cathedral being conse- crated in 1205. The troubled period of the thirteenth century was generally unfavourable to the spiritual life of the diocese; in addition, the acquisition of prop- erty through donation ceased altogether, and the bishops, in particular Konrad of Wittelsbach (1258- 1278) and Emicho of Wittelsbach (1283-1311), or- ganized and brought together their scattered posses- sions by purchase, sale, and exchange. By inheriting Werdenfels (1294), the diocese became an immediate principality of the empire.

The schism which occurred under Louis the Bavar- ian also divided the Church of Freising. In opposi- tion to the bishops chosen by the cathedral chapter, which was favourable to the emperor, three others were named in succession by the pope, and for more than a century afterwards the popes appointed the bishops of this diocese, ignoring the privilege of free choice possessed by the chapter. Under the rule of Bishop Albert of Hohenberg (1349-59), chancellor of Charles IV, the diocese recovered from the evil eff'ects produced by the schism. His successors were in great part lords from Austrian territory. In opposition to Bishop Nicodemus of Scala (1421-43), named by Mar- tin V, who proved himself an excellent regent and pro- moter of ecclesiastical reform, the cathedral chapter chose the vicar-general, Johann Griinwalder, recog- nized by the antipope, Felix V, and by Duke Albert of Bavaria; but after the resignation of Heinrich II of Schlick (1443-48), appointe<l Ijv the pope, he obtained general recognition as bishop, and showed himself to be eniinentiv fitted for the oflice (1448-52). His succes- sor, .Johann IV of Tuelbeck (14.53-73), was the first bishoji in many years to o%ve his election to the cathe- dral chapter. He resigned in favour of his chancellor, the pious Sixtus of Tannberg, who worked zealously for reform and for the maintenance of ecclesiastical discipline. During his time, Veit Arnpeck wrote hia history of Bavaria and of Freising.

After the death of Sixtus, the chapter elected in suc- cession three brothers of the house of Wittelsbach: Ruprecht (149.5-98), Philipp (1499-1541), and Hein- rich (1541-1.551); of, however, only Philipp re- ceived consecration. Given up to field sports, Philipp