knowledge as opposed to the unchecked freedom of university teaching. In accordance with the re- quirements of the times, he bestowed special care upon the encouragement of Catholic orders and associations, the fostering of Christian charity, the education of the clergy, and the awakening and con- servation of the spirit of the Church in the hearts of the people. The present archbishop is Franz Het- tinger, appointed on 23 May, 1909, and conse- crated, 15 Aug.
Statistics. — The archdiocese comprises the Bavar- ian district of Upper Bavaria, excepting those por- tions lying west and north of the Danube, 48 communes in the domains of Landshut, and Vilsbiburg in the district of Lower Bavaria. The suffragan dioceses are Augsburg, Passau, and Ratisbon. The diocese is divided into 36 deaneries, 3 town commi-ssariats (Munich, Landshut, and Freising), 417 parishes, 20 exposituren (parishes in all but the name) and vica- riates. The diocese has 460 benefices and manual benefices (i. e., benefices the incumbents of which may be removed at the will of a superior), 400 curacies, and 100 other places where church services are held. The clergy numbers (1910) 412 pastors, 162 invested beneficiaries, 677 other priests, 210 regular priests (in all 1461 priests). The number of Catholics is 1,069,300. In addition to the cathedral chapter, there are three collegiate churches: in Munich (St. Cajetan's), Laufen, and Tittmoning.
For the education of the clergy there are lesser seminaries in Scheyern (conducted by the Benedic- tines) and in Freising, having respectively 175 and 215 students, as well as two ecclesiastical seminaries, viz., the archiepiscopal seminary in Freising, with 171 students, and the Georgianum, founded in 1494 by Duke Georg the Rich at Ingolstadt, now transferred to Munich and administered by the State, with 103 students, of which, however, only 23 belong to the Diocese of Munich-Frei.sing. The students attend the philosophical and theological lectures at the University of Munich and at the state lyceums at Freising.
The following orders are represented in the arch- diocese: — The Bcncclictines po.ssess the two Abbeys of Scheyern and St. Boniface in Munich, founded by King Louis I, as well as the Abbeys of Ettal and Schaft.larn, and 2 colleges for students in Munich, — in all (1910) 91 fathers, 27 scholastics, and 162 brothers. The Franciscans have 5 convents, with 49 fathers, 23 scholastics, and 58 lay brothers; the Ca- puchins, 5 convents, with 43 fathers, 9 novices, and 53 lay brothers; the Brothers of Mercy, 2 convents, with 3 fathers, and 17 brothers; the Minorites, 1 hospital, with 3 fathers, and 3 lay brothers; the Re- demptorists, 2 colleges, with 28 fathers, 29 scholas- tics, and 46 lay brothers; the Augustinians, 1 convent, with 4 fathers, and 6 lay brothers.
Numerous female orders and congregations are to be found in the archdiocese. Of the ancient con- vents of women only a few are still in existence, notably the Benedictines of the Island of Frauenchiem- see, with an educational cstahlishinfnt and 72 sisters, and the convent of the SiT\iti's, near the jiilgrimage church of the ducal hospital in Municli, with .5.") sisters. The recent congregations are occupied entirely with the instruction of girls, with the care of the sick and the orphans, with the management of Catholic in- stitutions, and so on, while the Brigittines and the Carmelites give themselves up to contemplation.
Besides the two establishments already named, there exi.st (1910) in the archdiocese: Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, from the mother-house in Munich, 61 convents, 842 sisters; Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent do Paul, from the mother-house in Augsburg, .') csliibli.shinents, 35 sisters; English Ladies (Institute of Mary), 1 mother-house and 15 filial in- stitutes, 609 sisters; 1 establishment of the Missionary
Sisters of St. Benedict, 7 sisters; Briggitines, 1 house, 41 sisters; Dominicans, 1 establishment, 16 sisters; Franciscans, 5 houses, 139 sisters; Franciscans from the mother-house of Maria-Stern, in Augsburg, 12 establishments, 83 sisters; Poor Franciscans of the Third Order, from Mallersdorf, 65 houses, 429 sisters; Sisters of the Congregation of St. Joseph of Ursberg, 2 houses, 31 sisters; Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 1 house in Munich, 94 sisters; Carmelites, 1 house, 9 sisters; Salesians, 3 establishments, 179 sisters; Poor School Sisters, with a general mother-house, Sankt Jacob am Anger, in Munich, and 49 filial convents, in all, 764 sisters; Ursulines in Landshut, 55 sisters; Sisters of the Most Holy Redeemer from the mother- house at Niederbronn (Alsace), 23 establishments, 203 sisters.
Of the associations in the archdioce.se, the following, more or less widespread, may be named: Ludwig- missionsverein (Louis missionary union), the Associa- tion of the Holy Childhood of Jesus, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, St. Elizabeth's Guild, the Arch- confraternity of the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, Catholic Geseltenvereine (Jour- neymen's Unions) and Arbeilervereine (LInions of Labourers), Catholic Students' Unions, Catholic Associations for the Young, Unions of Clerks and Em- ployees, Servants' Unions, Associations for the Edu- cation of Neglected Children, and so forth.
Of the churches of the archdiocese, those of the city of Munich are especially noteworthy; this is so in par- ticular of the Calhcdrai of Our Ladv, a brick building in the Got hie style, which dates from 1468-88, with two towers 324 ft . in height, whose copper cupolas, the so-called "wiilschen Kappen" (Romanesque caps), are the town's most famous landmarks. Other churches are St. Peter's, the oldest parish church of the city, dating from the year 1180, built in the Gothic and later restored in the Baroque style; .Sankt Jacob am .\nger, the oldest church in Alunich, still re- taining its original form and dating from the thir- teenth century; the court church of St. Michael, built for the Jesuits, 1.583-97, the most distinguished ec- clesiastical production of the German Renai-ssance; the court church of St. Cajetan, built (1663-75) for the Theatines, in the Baroque style; the church of St. Louis, built ( 1830-44), mainly through the generosity of King Louis I, in medieval Italian style, containing the famous fresco of the "Last Judgment" by Cor- nelius; the court of All Saints, built in 1827-37 in the Romanesque-Byzantine style; and the Basilica of St. Boniface, built (1835-50) for the Benedictines, in the form of an early Christian basilica, containing frescoes taken from the life of St. Boniface. The numerous churches of the most varied styles which have been erected in Munich during the last ten years, and constitute one of the beauties of the city, e. g., tho.se of St. Anna, St. Paul, St. Joseph, St. Rupert, bear witness to the people's devotion.
Of the other churches of the archdiocese, the follow- ing are worthy of mention: the cathedral of Freising, built 1161-1205, often restored and altered, in which is to be found the shrine containing the relics of St. Corbinian; the Gothic church of St. Martin, in the city of Lanflshut, dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, surmounted by the highest tower in Bavaria; in the same city the church of Si . .lodock, also in the Gothic style, built in 1338-6S; the Hoinan- esque church of Moosburg, erected 1160; the cullegiate churches of Tegern.see, Isen, Berchtesgadeii, Ihiiinun- ster, Dietramszell, and others. The jilaces of jiil- grimage include the church of the Ducal Hospital in Munich, Maria-I'jcli, Maria-Ranmiensdorf, .Maria- Blutcnburg in .Munich, Maria-Kich at Traunslein, Tunlciiliausen, lottal, Scheyern, Mariadorfen, Birken- steiii, HeiligMut at Erdingr-^
-Univkksity of Munich. — It was first established (1472) at Ingolstadt (q. v. for its history up to 1800).