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MUNKACS


634


MUNSTER


In ISOO it n;i.s triinsfcrrod to Landshut, and, later, by decree of Ludwip I (:U)ot., 182(i) to Munich, whore it has developed in peace. Its earliest location was the former college of the Jesuits, but in 1.S40 it removed to a new building which hsis recently (1!K)S) been con- sidorablv enlarged. Through the niuiufi<'encc of the Wittelsbach dynasty, abundant provi.sion has b(-en made for its organization and equipment, and it, now ranks as the second largest among the Cerman vnu- versities. The revised statutes were published in 1S3.'), and new regulations for the student body in IS49' The fourth centenary of the university was celebrated in .\ugust, 1S72. The faculty of theology at Munich has a long list of distinguished names: Allioli. Dollinger, Ilanebcrg, Hergenrother, Klee, Miililer, Phillips, Permaneder, Keischl, Schegg, Thalhofer. The Collegium Georgianuni, founded in 1404 by George the Rich for the special benefit of theological students, was transferred to Munich with the rest of the univensitv, and still serves its original puri)o.se The faculty numbers (1910) twelve pro- fessors and nine Dozcnls; there are 1.50 theological stuch'nts. Among illustrious representatives of the other sciences may be mentioned: in philosophy, Schelling (1S'J7-41); in chemistry, Liebig (1852-73); in surgery, Thiersch (1848-95), and Nussbaum (1860- 90): in "medicine, Ring.seis (1817-80); in history, Gieshrecht ( 1862-89): in Germanic philology, Schmel- ler (1S27-29); in Celtic philology, Zeuss (1847-56). In 1910 the total number of instructors was 252; of students, 6890.

Meichelbeck. Hisloria Frisuiaensts (2 vnls., .'^UKsburg, UM), rUi Arnpeckii Liber de geslis EpiscopoTun> F> >: j- n/m (new edition, Munich, 1852); Deutinoeh, Dt. ' ■ '" '«»

Bisfums Frrisini; (3 vols., Munich, 1849-.-.H I,., ,: nn.je^ur Geschichte, Topographic und StatiiUkdes hrzi< ' /;., \l u u.henuna Freising (6 vola.. Munich. 1850-54), continucii by .^pecht, vols VII to X (Munich, 1901-10); Baumgartneb, Ueschichte derbtadt Freining und ihrer Bischsfe (Freising, 1854); von Hund, Urkun- dm des Bi^tums Freisina (Munich, 1873); Zahn. Codex-diplomatt- cS ii," r: ,. . <J» (3 vols.. Vienna, 1870-71); Mayer

AND Wf- ' ' I ' ^':fi4i!<che Beschreibung des Bistums MUn- chtn-Fr,: \ I unich and Ratisbon, 1879-84);ScHLECHT,

Bo«ern.> A, '■ ,:• '■ (Munich, 1902); BlTTERAnr, Die Tra-

■iilinnrn df% Hi^i' I ■ j ' Munich, 1905): Generahensamm-

lungdl- Erzdw.^ W /,,,,««(,, I-V (Munich, 1821-98);

PaaloralblaUlAni ] ^sll\ far die ErzdiezeseMundien-

Freising (Muni' ii;■'" •. hematismus der Gnslhcnkeit des

Erzbintums Mum I ,' Munich, 1821— ); 06fT6a!/crtscAes

Archil far ZrrI,, ■•'■ '- /,(p (Munich. 1839— ); Sammci-

blaU des hislor, • ' / >, istno (Freising. 1894— ) Re-

garding the chur.h. - -■■ M'.MMiT, Der Com m/remnfl (Lands- hut 1852)- Idem. Dte mdlrlallerliche huusl m der Erzdiozese Ma'nchen-Freiairtg (Fieising, 1855); iJic Kunstdenkmdler Bayerns, I; Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern (Munich, 1892 — ).

Joseph Lins.

Munkacs, Diocese of, in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Kite, suffragan of Gran. It dates from the fifteenth century. Until then the Greek Ruthcnians who had emigrated to Hungary a generation before, 1254, were .subject to the See of Przemysl. In 14.58 the Diocese of Munkdcs is mcntione<l for the first time in a document of King Mathias as a parish with episcopal jurisdiction. It was probably established between 1439 and 14,58, as the document mentions that Lucas, the occupant of the see, had already exercised the usual jurisdiction for a considerable period. Its historj' is connected with that of the Basilian mona-sterj- at Csernekhegy near Munkdcs, established supposedly in 1360 by Duke Theodore Koriatovics, but demonstrably as late as 1418. The hi.story of the diocese falls naturally into t hrce periods. Until 1641, when union with Rome took [ilace, Mun- kdcs endeavoured to extend its episco|)al jurisdiction over the thirteen districts (Koraitate) of Hungary, later its territorj'. The second period lasts from 1641 to 1771, when the sec was canonically established. A third period brings its history down to t he present. Gf its history during the fifteenth and sixtcciitli centuries we know Very little, especially in regard to the mode of episcopal appointment, although it wasjirobably by election until 1561, with the exception of the nomi-


nation in 1458. In King Wladislaw II's documents a certain John is mentioned as bislioj) in 1491 and 149S; thence until 1551 we hear nolliiiig more alxiiit the li'ishops, nor are we even sure that the see was (lecu- picd Thelirst docuiiieiit recording the actual appoint- ment of a bishop (lilies from 1623. In 1641, under Bishop Theodore Tliaiassoyics (1639-48), union with Rome was facilital ed by the wish to have done with de- pendence on the lords of Munkdcs, but George Rak6czi I of Transylvania, Lord of Munkdcs, being unfavourably disposed tow^ards union, took Thara.s- sovics prisoner, and, although the hitter obtained his freedom in 1642, he did not regain iiossession ol the see. In 1649 the union with Rome was again i^ro- claimed by the clergy of Munkdcs influenced by Bishop George Jakusich of Eger; henceforth, espe- cially from 1689, date the efforts of the bishops of Egei- to bring Munkdcs into close subjection.

After the union of 1649, Peter Parthenius was ap- pointed Bishop of Munkdcs, and was confirmed both by King Leopold and the pope. His death was fol- lowed by a period of decadence: the diocese was di- vided into several parts, administered more or less in- dependently of one another, and conflicts arose between the emperor, the pope, and the Rdk6czi family, concerning the right of nomination to the see. Appointed bishop in 1689 through the efforts of Archbishop Kolonics, Joseph de Camelis, a Greek, devoted his chief energy towards fostering the re- ligious life of the people and extirpating incontinence among the clergy. To promote these objects he held twelve synods within three years, that of Szatmdr being of special iniptirtance. After Camelis's death the right of appointment was again disputed. King Joseph I api)oiiite-l .losejjh Ilodermarszky bishop in 1705; Francis Rakdczi II, as Lord of Munkacs, hlled the episcopal office independently; the Holy See, on its part, appointed an administrator, not regarding the see legally established for lack of canonical creation. Hodermarszky had to resign the see in 1715, and the endeavours of the bishops of Eger to treat Munkdcs ■ as a suffragan thus triumphed. Hodermarszky s successor, Gennadius Bizanczi (1716-33), had already acted as vicar Apostohc. Both he and still more his successor, Michael Olsavszky, contested the authority of the Bishop of Eger; Olsavszky's successor, John Braddcs, continued the conflict, and finally triumphed. In 1771 the See of Munkdcs was establi.shed canoni- cally by Clement XIV, Braddcs beeonung first canon- ical bishop. Under him the chapter, with seven canons, was also established. In 1816 Hif.^ef «  Eperjes was separated from Munkdcs, and in 185b ninety-four parishes were incorporated in the new See of Szamosujvdr. Basil Popovics (1837-64) made a lasting impression on the religious life of the diocese; Stephen Pankovics (1866-74) displayed great activity in the domain of diocesan administration, and John Pdsztelvi-Kovdcs (1879-94) performed especially prominent service in the cause of public educatwn. .Since 1894 Julius Firczdk has been bishop. Ihe residence is at Ungvdr. The see is divided into two vicariates (Mdrmaros and Ilajdu-Dorog), seven archdeaneries, and forty-eight vice-archdeaneries. The parishes number 387, the right of patronage being exercised by ninety patrons, the parochial clergy oyer ,500. There are five monasteries, and the chapter

'"'^!l:::!it,'^X^eek Catholic See of A/""^^" (B"d.pe,, 1910) with literature; Catholic Hungary (Budapest, 1902), both

'" """-■-• A, ALDisv.

Miinster, Diocese of (Monasteriensis), in the Prussian Province of Westphalia, suffragan of Co-

"T'^Sbculaii History.— The earliest name of M""?" ster was Mimegemeford, the later form being Mimi- gardeford, whUe from 1076 it was called by the Latin