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flaring which the dioopso was administored by Cloves. The maintenance of Catholicism in the diocese was assured tiy the victory of Ernst of Bavaria (ISSo- 1012 1, who was also IJishop of Freising, Hildcsheim, and Liege, and Archhishop of Cologne. He zealously unilertook the Counter-Reformation, invited the Jes- uits to aid him, and encouraged the founding of niouius- terics of the old onlcis, alt hough he could not re])air all the losses. The western part of the Frisian district under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Minister was transferred, in l.")ti!), to the newly-founded bislio])rica of Groningen and Deventer, and with them fi|ll into Protestantism. In the same way the possessions of the Counts of Rent heim-Steinfurt and some other for- tified towns passed from the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishop. The two immediate successors of Bishop Ernst laboured in the same spirit. Ferdinand of Bavaria (1612-50) was at the same time Elector of Cologne and Bishop of Paderborn, Hildesheim, and Liege. lie fountled a seminary, which he placed under the direction of Jesuits. Christopher Bernhanl of Galen (16.i(>-78) was equally efficient both as bishop and as secular ruler: he forced the refractory city of Mlmster, after a long siege, to acknowledge his sover- eign right.s succeeded in freeing his territory from for- eign troops, gained parts of the Archdiocese of Bremen and of the Diocese of Werden in a war with Sweden, restored church disci])line, and established a school system for his territory.

" The immediate successors of the three distinguished rulers just mentioned were p'erdinand II of Fiirsten- berg (1678-83), Maximilian Henrv of Bavaria (16S3- 88), Frederick Christian of Plettenberg (1688-1712), and Francis Arnold of Wolf-Metternich (1708-18). Unfortunately, under these men church discipline de- clined, and much that was excellent decayed for lack of proper care, or, like the seminary for priests, ceased to exist. The next bishop was the frivolous, vain, and pomp-loving Clement Augustus of Bavaria (1719- 61), who was also Elector of Cologne, and Bishop of Paderborn, Hildesheim, and Osnabriick. During his episcopate the diocese suffered terribly, in 1734-35 and during the Seven Years War, being almost ruined financially. The succeeding bishop, Maximihan Frederick of Konigsegg-Rottenfels (1761-84), who was also Elector of Cologne, was a weak, though well- meaning, man. Happily, he left the administration of the Diocese of Munst er to a young cathedral canon, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von Fiirstenberg (q. v.), during whose administration the diocese attained un- exampled prosperity. At the election of an auxiliary bishop, von Fiirstenberg was defeated by Maximilian Franz of Austria, who became the last Prince-Bishop of Miinster and Elector of Cologne (1774-1801). Upon the death of Maximilian Franz, his nephew, the Arch- duke Anthony Victor, was elected, but could not enter upon the administration on account of the op- position of Prussia, which had long coveted the do- mains of the Church in Northern Germany.

In 1803 the diocese was secularized by the Imperial Delegates Enactment and broken up into numerous parts. The larger share was assigned to Prussia, which took posse^ssion in March, 1803. The rich treasury of the cathedral was transferred to Magde- burg and has never been returned. Freiherr von Fiirstenberg administered as vicar-general the ecclesi- astical affairs of the diocese even during the short supremacy of the French (1806-13). After his death, in 1810, the administrator was his former coadjutor, Clement .\ugustus von Droste-Vischering, later Arch- bishop of Cologne. In the years 1813-15thediocesewas administered, without the authorization of the pope, by Count Ferdinand .\ugustus von Spiegel, arbitrarily appointed by Napoleon, and to whom von Droste- Vischering had given his faculties by subdelegation. In 1813 the principality wjis again ceded to Prussia. Upon the ecclesiastical reorganization of Prussia, com-

pleted by the Bull of 10 July, 1821, "De salute ani- marum", the diocese was given its present boun- daries (see below). The see had been vacant for twenty years when Ferdinand von Lunninck (1821- 25), fornierlj' Prince-Bishop of Corvey, was appointed. Gn account of illness, he left the administration to Jodok Hermann von Zurmiihlen, already an old man, whom he made pro-vicar. The succeeding bishop was Caspar Max, Freiherr von Droste-Vischering (1824- 46), who, having been auxiliary bishop of the diocese since 1705, had confirmed many hundreds of thou- sands and ordained over 2200 priests. His adminis- tration was greatly hampered by the petty and far- reaching supervision of the Government. In place of the university, suppressed in 1818, he was able to open, in 1832, an academy with philosophical and the- ological faculties; in 1902 this academy became a uni- versity. Ecclesiastical life in the diocese was in a some- what unsatisfactory condition, the clergy being largely inclined to Rationalistic and Hermesian opinions.

An intellectual and religious revival throughout Germany followed the events at Cologne in 1837 (see CoLOCiNF.). This re\'ival and the larger freedom granted the Catholic Church of Prussia under King P^rederick William IV produced excellent n-sults in the diocese. During the episcopate of John Gregory Miiller (1847-70), fruitful popular missions were held in many places, many churches were rebuilt, and a large number of religious houses and benevolent insti- tutions were founded with the active assist ance of the laity. His successor, John Bernhard Brinkmann (1870-89), laboured in the same apostolic sijirit. Dur- ing the Kullurkampf he suffered fines, imijrisonment, and, from 1875 to 1884, banishment. He was obliged to witness the destruction of much that had been es- tabhshed by his predecessors and by himself. The present bishop is Hermann Dingelstad, born 2 March, 1835, elected 15 August, 1889, consecrated 24 Febru- ary, 1890.

Statistics. — The Diocese of Miinster includes: the Prussian Department of Miinster in Westphalia; the parish of Lette, in the Department of Minden; three enclaves in the Department of Arensbcrg; the city district of Duisberg; the districts of Dinslaken, Rees, Cleves, Gildem, Kempen, and Mors in Rhenish Prus- sia; the city of Wilhelmshaven in the Province of Hanover; the Duchy of Oldenburg. The 408 parishes of the diocese are distributed in 22 deaneries, of which 12 are in Westphalia, 8 in Rhenish Prussia, and 2 in Oldenburg. In 1910 there were in the diocese 1,427,- 203 CathoUcs, 664,737 Protestants, 8758 Jews. The diocesan priests numbered 1333, of whom 1259 were engaged in parochial work, teaching, or ecclesiastical administration; 74 were absent on leave or were re- tired; there were 133 regulars. In addition, 38 eccle- siastics not belonging to the diocese were dorniciled in it. There has been an unbroken succession of au.xiliary bishops since 1218. The cathedral chapter consists of a provost, dean, 8 canons, and 6 honorary canons. The vicariate-general is composed of the vicar-general, 6 ecclesiastical councillors, a notary Apostolic for the diocese, a justiciary, 3 secretaries, and 7 other officials. Besides the officialile at Miinster, there is also one at Vechta for the Oldenburg section of the diocese. The diocesan institutions are: the seminary for priests (36 students who were already deacons in 1910), the Collegium Borroma;um for theo- logical students (182 students), the Collegium Ludger- ianum (111 pupils), the institute for Church music— all at Miinster; at Gaesdonck, near Goch, an epis- copal seminary for assistant priests, and the Collegium Augustinianum ; 4 episcopal institutions for poor children, and the Maria-Hilf institute at Tilbeck for epileptic women and girls. There are 13 ecclesiastical professors in the theological faculty and one in the philosophical faculty at Miinster. Among the state- aided Catholic higher schools are 11 Gymnasia, one