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Realschule, 6 seminaries for male and 2 for female teachers. There are also a large number of high schools for girls, generally carried on by nuns.

The city of Munster contains 27 houses of religious orders and congregations. The members conduct most of the 25 Catholic institutions for public benefit and charity in the municipality. The male orders and congregations represented in the diocese are: Francis- cans, 5 monasteries, 40 fathers, 13 clerical novices, 11 lay brothers; Capuchins, 4 monasteries, 34 fathers, 9 clerics, 23 brothers; Trappists in the colony for men out of work at Maria-Venn, 8 fathers, 12 brothers; Benedictines, an abbey and a priory, 15 fathers, 28 brothers; Dominicans, 2 monasteries, 12 fathers, 7 lay brothers; Society of Missionaries of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 1 house, 19 missionaries; Alexian Brothers, 1 institution for the care of insane men, 46 brothers; Brothers of Mercy, 2 houses, 41 brothers; Brothers of St. Francis, 3 houses, 19 brothers. Female religious orders and congregations: Benedictine nuns of the Perpetual Adoration, 3 houses, 151 sisters; Sisters of the Visitation of Mary, 1 house, 35 sisters; Poor Clares, 3 houses, 92 sisters; Ursulines at Dorsten, where they have a higher school for girls, a boarding- school, a seminary for female teachers etc., 60 sisters; Sisters of IMercy, mother-house at Munster, 81 branches in the diocese, 240 sisters; Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd, mother-house and branch house, 125 sisters; Sisters of the Divine Providence, a mother-house, 63 filial houses, and 640 sisters who conduct a large number of schools for girls, homes for girls, houses for the needy and helpless, etc. ; Nursing Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis, a mother-house, 83 branch houses, 894 sisters; Sisters of Our Lady, a mother-house, 41 branch-houses, which carry on boarding schools, day-schools, homes for girls etc., 590 sisters; Sisters of the Christian Schools of Mercy, who conduct higher schools for girls, day- nurseries, sewing-schools, take care of the sick, etc., 24 houses, 146 sisters; Poor Serving Maids of Jesus Christ, 4 houses, 47 sisters; Poor Franciscans of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary, a hospital with 7 sisters; Sisters of Penitence and Christian Charity of the Third Order of St. Francis, 3 houses, 152 sisters; Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo at Cleves, 13 sisters; Grey Sisters of St. Elizabeth, 1 house, 8 sisters; Daughters of the Holy Cross, 4 houses, 99 sisters; Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a mother-house, 78 sisters; Dominican Nuns frorn the mother-house at Arenberg in the Diocese of Trier, 3 houses, 10 sisters. Among the religious associations are: the association of priests, young men's associa- tions (84), Marian sodaUties for young men (262), journeymen's unions in 81 towns, merchants' associa- tions (36), workmen's unions (134), miners' unions (47), sodalities for men (77), congregations of Cath- olic young women (250), societies of Christian mothers (325), the Bonifaciusverein, the Societies of St. Vin- cent, of Blessed Albertus Magnus, etc.

The principal churches are: the cathedral (built for the most part between 1225 and 1265, in the transition period from Romanesque to Gothic archi- tecture, while the great doorway, built in 1516, is late Gothic in style); the Gothic church of St. Lambert, built, on the site of an old parish church, in the second half of the fourteenth century, with a new Gothic tower, about 312 feet high, added in 1887-90, to re- place the old one on which had hung the iron cages that held the bodies of the executed Anabaptists; the church of Our Lady, a fine fourteenth-century Gothic building erected on the site of the chapel of the Virgin, built by St. Ludger; the church of St. Ludger, built about 1170, enlarged 1383; the collegiate church of St. Moritz, founded 1070, and enlarged, 1862, in Romanesque style. Besides these, the following de- serve particular mention: the Romanesque churches of Freckenhorst and Emmerich; the Gothic churches

at Xanten (Cathedral of St. Victor), Liidinghausen, Cleves, Kalten, Kempen, and Nottuln.

Works on the City of Munster: Wilckens, Versuch einer allge- meinen Geschichte der Stadt Munster (Munster and Hamm, 1^24) ; NlESERT, Beilrdge zu eifiein muri.^teri-:fh€n Urkundenbuch (2 vols., Mun.ster, 1823); Idem, Mw hn.^f'. I i kundensammlung {7 \o\s., Cop.sfeld. 1826-37); Eini n. ., i..l,ir Miinsters (Munster, 1837) ; TiBUS. Die S(a(/( U 1 ui^lrr, 1882); von Detten, MUnshr in IVeslfnlen, .-. : I ' v uiid das KuUurbild sei- ner tnu.., ,;' ;.. ;,' ., iMuiister, ISSl): Quellen und Forsclfi,: ' >/^// ,Uu«s(er, I (Munster, 1889); PlEPEH. /' i i; '; lMunsler,1902):SAVELS.Z)er Domzu .U-.. '. ■ \li.)i.t. I. P'lili; I'.wNH k. IlasUttrarinchr Lebenin Munster bis zur endiiuttiaiii Kt:, pi,. . 1 1 . ,;.: j , n, ; i Munster, 1906); HUPPEHTZ, Mu/i.'.ffrtm 7-1-:' /- I r. 1908).

On the Diocese: W'fs(/(>7isr*fs r I -. M I Munster,

1S47-1908) (especially 11 and Mil . /)- ', ■ " .,«.//fii des Bistums Munster, I-VI (Munster, lS.')l-r,lll(l) ; Cudix Trnditionum Weslfalicarum (6 vols., Miinster, 1872-1907); Tibus, Grunduiigs- geschichte der Stifter, Pfarrkirchen, KlUster und Kapellen im Be- reich des alten Bistums Munster (Munster, 1893) ; Bahlriann, Der Regierungsbezirk Munster (Miinster, 1893); Staffer, Die dlteste Agende des Bistums Miinster (Miinster, 1906) ; Schematismus der Diozese Miinster (Miinster, 1910). — On the Diocesan Feud and the Period of the (I^ounter- Reformation: Hansen in Publikationen aus den k. preussischen Staatsarchiven, XHI (Leipzig, 1890); Keller, ibid., IX, XXXIII (Leipzig, 1881 and 1887).— On the Episcopate of Bishop Galen: Tucking. Geschichte des Stifts Miin- ster unter Ch. B. von Galen (Munster, 1865) ; HusiNG, Fiirstbischof Ch. B. von Galen (Munster, 1887). — On the Secularization of the Diocese; vo.n Olfers, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Verfassung und der ZersCiickelung des Obersti/ts Miinster (Miinster, 1848). — Nu- merous contributions to the history of the city and diocese of Miinster are to be found in the following: Zeitschrift fiir vater- Uiiidiache Geschichte und Allertumskunde (Miinster) (67 vols, up to 1910); Beitrdge zur Geschichte Niedersachsens und Westfalens (Hildesheim) (22 parts up to 1910); Miinsterische Beitrdge zur Geschichtsforschung (Miinster) (26 parts up to 1910). See also Anabaptists; Westphalia. Joseph Lins.

University of Mijnster. — The town of Miinster in Westphalia obtained its university in 1771 through the initiative of the prince-bishop's vicar-general, Freiherr von Fiirstenberg.

The foundation for the university was the cathedral school at Miinster, which dated from the Middle Ages. This school, about the end of the fifteenth century, had reached a flourishing condition through the efforts of the famous humanist Rudolph von Langen (1438-1519). The disturbances caused by the Anabaptists (1533-35) had a depressing influence, but Dean Gottfried von Raesfeld succeeded in restor- ing it to its former position by turning its supervision over to the Jesuits in 1588. The school, now called Gymnasium Paulinum, was enlarged by the addition of courses in philosophy and theology for the scien- tific education of priests, and was raised by Pope Urban VIII to the rank of an academy, 9 Sept., 1629. The latter action was taken at the urgent request of Prince-Bishop Ferdinand I (1612-31), who also ob- tained from the Emperor Ferdinand II the document of 21 May, 1631, in which the latter granted permis- sion to found a complete university with four facul- ties. The death of the bishop, the disturbances of the Thirty Years' War and the want of funds pre- vented the execution of this plan during the next cen- tury and a half. The clever work of Vicar-General Franz Friedrich von Fiirstenberg finally accomplished the desired end: on 4 August, 1771, Prince-Bishop Maximilian Friedrich von Konigseck-Rotenfels signed the document making Miinster a university. Pope Clciiic'iit XIV granted to the university, in a bull d:il(Ml 2S May, 1773, all the privileges, indults and liberties which other universities enjoyed. The char- ter, signed by Emperor Joseph II in Vienna, is dated 8 Oct. of the same year. For more than thirty years Fiirstenberg, as curator, laboured earnestly for the development of the university. He filled it with the spirit of positive Christianity, so that it had a benefi- cent influence at a time when rationalistic philosophy and false enlightenment appeared everywhere. In 1803 Miinster was ceded to Prussia by the imperial deputation assembled at Ratisbon. The Prussian ad- ministrator of Miinster, Baron von Stein, showed great interest in the university, but endeavoured to do away with its CathoUc character. His successor,