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President, von Vincko, iicconiplished this purpose and dismissed Kiirstenberg, the founder of the university, in ISO"). In the autumn of ISOti the Krench took pos- session of the town. Duriiin the seven ycius' sway of the foreigners no remarkable progress was made in the university. After Minister had again lieeome Prus- sian in 1S13, the Protestant government raised the question whether the university should be reorgan- ized or removed to another town. No decision was reached until King Frederick William III in 1815 promised his new subjects on the left bank of the Rhine that a uni%ersit.\' would be established on the Rhine. The founding of the university at Bonn car- ried with it the abolition of that of ^Iunster, which took place in the summer of 1818. Only one theo- logical course, and, by way of preparation for the same, a philological and scientific course, remained, under the name of an academy. While this academy possessed the character of a university and the right of conferring degrees, it was conducted on a rather modest scale. A department of medicine, which had been started in 1821, was discontinued in 1848. It was not until 1S70 that the increasing importance of Germany as a nation infu.'^ed new life into the en- deavour to uplift the academy. In ISSO the model- ling of the present magnificent main edifice of the university was completed, and in 1886 there was added to the academy a pharmaceutical institute. The continued efTorts of the town and of the province of Westphalia finally led to the issue of a royal decree, dated 1 July, 1902, restoring to the academy a faculty of law and the title "University" (since 1907 "West- phiilische Wilhelms-Universitiit", in honour of the Emperor William II). In 1906 there followed the establishment of the chairs and institutions required for the first half of the course in medicine, the further ex- tension of which may be expected in the next few years.

Noteworthy among the teachers of the old epis- copal university were: Clemens Becker, S.J., professor of canon law and moral theology (d. 1790); Joh. Hyac. Kistemaker, philologist and theologian, who taught the classical languages from 1786 to 1834, and, later on, exegesis. A. M. Sprickmann laboured as a jurist in Miinster from 1778 to 1814, when he was called to the University of Breslau and later, in 1817, to Berlin. Anton Bruchhau.sen, S.J., professor of physics (1773-82), gained a great reputation among German scientists through his "Institutiones phy- sics" (1775); and the philosopher (177.3-83) through his "Institutiones logica;". George Hermes was professor of dogmatic theology in Miinster from 1807-20; he founded the so-called Hermcsianism, a rationalistic tendency in theology, and d. in 1831 at Bonn, where he taught from 1820; his teachings were condemned at Rome in 1S36. J. Th. H. Katerkamp, who was counted among the friends of Princess Galitzin, was professor of theol- ogy. Of the teachers in the academy there deserve to be mentioned the neo-scholastic Stoekl, professor of philo.sophy (1862-71); furthermore, Wilhelm Storck, interpreter of Portuguese poems (Camoens) and pro- fes.sor of German literature (1859-1905); and especially Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, since 1852 professor of physics and chemistry, who discovered the cathode rays, and made valuable investigations concerning electric phenomena in vacuum tubes and contribu- tions to the theory of ions. Mention should also be made of Professors Berlage (dogmatics), Reinke (Old Testament exegetics), and Bisping (New Test, ex- egetus), Schwane (dogmatics).

The number of matriculated students is at present: summer of 1910, 2008 (including 68 women); there are besides 115 auditors. Teachers: in the theo- logical faculty, 9 ordinary and 2 extraordinary pro- fessors, 2 dozents and 1 lecturer; in the law faculty, 7 ordinary and 3 extraordinary professors, 4 dozents; in the philosophical faculty, 28 ordinary and 6 extraor-

dinary professors, 14 dozents, and 4 lecturers; in the medical faculty, 1 extraordinary and 2 ordinary jirofessors, 2 lecturers, 1 dozent.

I'lEHKR, Oil nitr Unm-rsiUit Miliish-r (Mimster. 1902); Rasb- M.iN.N, Miinsterl/indische HchriflsleUer (Mtinstcr, ISIill); Anon., Kriniiminacu aus aller und ncucr Zeil von einem alien Miiiisleraner (Miinster, 1S80): .see also the official annual rcport.s, two senate nieinuriftts (1901, 1910), on the development of the university and another on the same subject by the Magistrate of the City of Munster (1910). W. EnGELKEMPER.

Miintz, EucfeNE. — French savant and historian; b. at Soulz-sous-Forets, near Miilhauscn, Alsace, 11 June, 1845; d. at Paris, 2 November, 1902. He took up the study of law, but turned aside from the legal profession to contribute to the "Revue Alsacienne" certain articles which caused much comment. Just at that time — following upon the great efflorescence of learned criticism in Germany — attention was being directed in France to the organized study of history. Albert Dumont founded at Rome the Ecole Frangaise, in the Farnese Palace, and Eugene Miintz became one of its first pupils. Among his fellow-students was Louis Duchesne, who afterwards became director of the school. Miintz ex-plored the Vatican Archives and Library, and began to amass that vast fund of erudition which he revealed in later years. From that time he devoted himself to the task of unravelling the history of art in Italy. About the year 1880, he, to- gether with such men as Morelli and Milanesi, contrib- uted immensely to this branch of study, and applied to it the positive method of in(juiry. Miintz's work is based on an exact acquaintance with original docu- ments — papers preserved in archives, memoranda, bills, inventories, contracts — supported by an extensive and profound knowledge of monuments. He never loses sight of the bond between the arts, that close relation- ship by which all the art industries of a period — its engraving, its tapestry-weaving, its pottery, its cabi- net-making — contribute, as so many expressions-of con- temporary thought, to form the genius of its painters, sculptors, and architects. Captivated by that Rome whore the fairest years of his life had been spent in studious research, he never ceased to regard the Rome of Julius 11 and Leo X, of Bramante, Michelangelo, and Raphael, as the highest expression of human civi- lization. This attitude of mind at times hindered liis doing justice to other schools— for instance, to those of Venice and Siena.

The earliest works of Miintz at once won for him a high place among the historians of art. In " Les Arts k la eour des papes pendant le XV et XVI® siecles" (4 vols., 1875-98) he has collected evidence to show the splendid part played by the papacy as leader of the Renaissance. When two volumes of this work had appeared, its author issued " Precurseurs de la Renais- sance" (1881), and followed this with "Raphaiil", to which it is a sort of introduction. The " Precurseurs" and "RaphaiJl" are still clas-sics (1st ed. 1881; 2nd ed. 1886); to them must be added a small but important volume "Les Historiens el les critiques de Raphael" (1884), in which Miintz di'fends traditional against modern criticism, especially against Morelli. He afterwards developed his cherished ideas in a work which became the most popular manual in France on Italian art, "Histoire de I'art en Italie pendant la Renaissance" (I, "Les Primitifs", 1888; II, "L'Age d'Or", 1891; III, "La Fin de la Renaissance", 1895). His views are not very original, his taste is somewhat academic, with a bourgeois tinge; but this history is nevertheless a most valuable popular treatment of that glorious period. His picture of the Renaissance is completed by an excellent study, "L^'onard de Vinci", which appeared in 1898. These books form a group by themselves; Miintz published many others, some of them works of sheer erudite research, but most of them bearing on the main %vork of his life, and forming supplements or additions to it. Among the former are: "Notes sur les mosaiques d'ltalie" (1874-